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Forging&forging process

Forging is manufacturing
process where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as forgings.

The forging process

Heated metal to be shaped is placed on a mold. Pressure is applied to the metal with the help of a press or hammer and due to this impact the malleable metal conforms to the die cavity shape.

Extreme pressure is produced when the die halves are closed. The seam of the die as well as punch acts as a relief valve. Once the metal object is shaped, flashing is removed
Use of a proper lubricant during the process helps to prevent sticking of the workpiece with the die. It also acts as a thermal insulator and helps the wear and tear on the die

Advantages of Forging
The forgings are consistent in shape and do not have any voids, porosity, inclusions, or defects.

This is especially helpful in later finishing and coating operations as surface preparation is minimized.
Parts that are produced by this method have high strength to weight ratio and therefore used in the design of the aircraft frames. It offers low cost for moderate to long runs.

Different types of Forging processes

Open Die Forgings or Hand forgings In this process the forgings are made with the help of repeated blows in an open die. Here the operator manipulates the work piece in the die during the blow process, similar to the traditional manufacturing process used by a blacksmith.

Impression Die Forgings or Precision Forgings These forgings are the refined form of blocker forgings. The finished metal part much more identical to the die impression.
Upset Forgings These forgings increase the cross-section by reducing the length of the metal. The process is used to make heads on valves, bolts and fasteners, and other similar parts.

The process is used on metals with good ductility such as copper, aluminum, nickel, steel, and magnesium. Minimizing size, material volume, and complexity of the design can reduce cost.

Example parts Connecting rods, crankshafts, wrenches, hooks etc.

Forging Design Guidelines Avoid undercuts. Recommended external draft: 6 degrees (96). Recommended internal draft: 8-10 degrees (98-100). Provide generous fillet and corner radii to aid material flow. Provide support webs and ribs.

Once we receives a blueprint, we proceed to make the master die. A plaster cast is made from the master die for approval. After the plaster cast has been approved, the forging dies are made, using the master die as a pattern

Bar stock is ordered for the manufacture of the forgings. The completed forging dies are then mounted in a hammer of sufficient size to form the forgings. The bar stock is cut into lengths appropriate to the dimensions of the finished forging.The lengths of material are heated in a forging furnace

Each length is pulled from the forging furnace by the hammerman using tongs, and placed in the blocker area of the forging die. The hammer is activated for several blows

Then, the rough formed forging is moved to the finisher area of the forging die. The hammer is activated once again for several blows. At this point, the forging is fully formed, but, still has a flash attached to it. The flash is the excess material around the formed forging.

The forged piece is removed from the forging dies by a trimmerman and is placed in a trim press. A few blows are necessary to remove the flash from the forging
The completed forging is then placed in a cooling bin. The cooling bin may contain liquid, to comply with the specifications provided on the blueprint supplied.

Once cooled, the forgings are placed in a wheelabrator with fine steel shot to clean off scale and discoloration formed in the forging process A Forged metal can result in the following Increase length, decrease cross-section, called drawing out the metal. Decrease length, increase cross-section, called upsetting the metal Change length, change cross-section, by squeezing in closed impression dies. This results in favorable grain flow for strong parts

Cold Forging is a cold working process where the material is squeezed into a die and the finished parts assume the shape of the die. This process is also known as Cold Heading. Bar stock or wire stock is fed into a die and is squeezed into the closed die. The resultant part is a nail, a bolt or a screw with the head.

A subsequent cold heading operation forms other features on the head such as knurls or slots for screw drivers etc. the shaping rod stock by forming the head as in rivets, bolts, nails and other fasteners. This process can be highly automated and parts can be made economically.