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IP Addressing (Internet Protocol)

Internet Protocol
Numbering scheme
Largest

network of computers

American

Registry of Internetwork Numbers (ARIN)

What is an IP address

A way to identify machines on a network


A unique identifier

IP Addresses
IP addresses are:
Unique Global and Standardised Essential

IP usage

Used to connect to another computer


Allows transfers of files and e-mail An IP address is 32 bit address.

IP structure

IP addresses consist of four sections


Each section is 8 bits long Each section can range from 0 to 255 Written, for example, 128.35.0.72

IP structure
These

four sections represent the machine itself and the network it is on


network portion is assigned.

The The

host section is determined by the network administrator

What is an IP address?

IP (Internet Protocol) address


device used by routers, to select best path

from source to destination, across networks and internetworks network layer address, consisting of NETWORK portion, and HOST portion logical address , assigned in software by network administrator part of a hierarchical numbering scheme unique, for reliable routing.

IP structure
5

Classes of IP address A B C D and E


A reserved for governments B reserved for medium companies C reserved for small companies

Class Class Class

IP structure
Class
Class

D are reserved for multicasting


E are reserved for future use

Finding the class in binary notation

Finding the address class

IP structure

Class A begins 0 to 127


Class B begins 128 to 191 Class C begins 192 to 223

Class D begins 224 to 239


Class E begins 240 to 255

Finding the class in decimal notation

Class A
1st octet = network address, octets 2-4 = host address 1st bits of 1st octet set to 0 Next 7 bits of 1st octet for network address. 00000000 is minimum address and 11111111 is maximum address. 2^7 -2=126 total number of network addresses (127)

Class A
2^24 -2 total number of hosts under each network address in class A. Network address 0 is reserved to designate the default route for the packets. Addresses beginning 127 are reserved for internal testing Class A range has address range from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255.

Class A

For Example:- 172.19.2.250 172.0.0.0 is the network address. 172.255.255.255 is the broadcast Address of network address 172.

Class A IP address

124.224.224.100

01111100

11100000

11100000

01100100

Class B IP address
1st 2 octets = network address, octets 3-4 = host address 1st bit of 1st octet always set to 1. 2nd bit of 1st octet always set to 0. Up to (2^14 2) Total Network Addresses. up to (2^16 - 2) host addresses (65534)

Class B IP address

129.224.224.100

10000001

11100000

11100000

01100100

Class C IP address
1st 3 octets = network address, octet 4 = host address 1st 3 bits of 1st octet set to 110 Up to ( 2^21-2) Total no. Of network addresses. up to (2^8 - 2) host addresses.

Class C IP address

193.224.224.100

11000001

11100000

11100000

01100100

Netid and hostid

Subnet
A network to be split into several parts for internal use but still act like a single network to the outside world. In the internet literature, these parts are called subnet. To outside the network, the subnetting is not visible, so allocating a new subnet does not require contacting NIC or changing any external databases.

Subnet Mask
Purpose: Apply the Mask to the IP Address to determine: Network bits Host bits Subnet ID, Broadcast ID & Unicast range Format: 4 octets, dotted decimal notation (same as IP address) Contiguous binary 1s starting from the left Examples: 255.255.255.0 (typical for LAN) 255.255.255.252 (typical for WAN) 255.255.255.1 (incorrect)

Subnet Mask in Binary


255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.255.252 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100 255.255.255.1 - incorrect 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000001

Subnet Calculation
Step 1 Convert: decimal address & mask format to binary address & mask format Step 2 Apply: binary subnet mask to the binary IP address using the and function Step 3 Calculate: Subnet ID Broadcast ID Unicast range (usable subnet addresses)

How to Calculate Subnet ID

(Binary of subnet Mask) * (Binary of IP address)= Subnet ID

Useable IP Address Calculations


1) 32 bits in address 2) 32 - network bits = host bits 3) 2 to the power of host bits = addresses on subnet 4) addresses - 2 (Broadcast and Subnet ID) = usable addresses on subnet For Example:32-24=8 host bit 2^8=256 (Addresses on subnet) 256-2=254(usable addresses on subnet) (broad cast id & subnet id)

Class D
Class D addresses are used for multicasting; there is only one block in this class.

IP Address Class D and Multicast


The IPv4 networking standard defines Class D addresses as reserved for multicast. Multicast is a mechanism for defining groups of nodes and sending IP messages to that group rather than to every node on the LAN (broadcast) or just one other node (unicast). Multicast is mainly used on research networks. As with Class E, Class D addresses should not be used by ordinary nodes on the Internet.

IP Address Class E and Limited Broadcast


The IPv4 networking standard defines Class E addresses as reserved, meaning that they should not be used on IP networks. Some research organizations use Class E addresses for experimental purposes. However, nodes that try to use these addresses on the Internet will be unable to communicate properly. A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address 255.255.255.255. A broadcast involves delivering a message from one sender to many recipients. Senders direct an IP broadcast to 255.255.255.255 to indicate all other nodes on the local network (LAN) should pick up that message. This broadcast is 'limited' in that it does not reach every node on the Internet, only nodes on the LAN.