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Spread spectrum modulation
Chapter 9
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9.1 Introduction
Digital communication
Bandwidth(secure communication), power efficiency
Spread spectrum modulation
jamming, multipath-rejection, multiple-access communications
Bandwidth in excess of the minimum bandwidth necessary
A code that is independent of the data sequence(operating in synchronism with
the transmitter)
Direct-sequence spread spectrum
Modulate a wide-band code
Second modulation using a phase-shift keying
Frequency happing
pseudo-random or pseudo-noise sequence
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9.2 pseudo-noise sequences
Pseudo-noise
Periodic binary sequence with a noiselike waveform that is generated by means
of a feedback shift register
.







2
m
-1 period
Said to be linear when the feedback logic consists entirely of modulo-2 adder
(not permitted zero state)
1
0
( 1) ( ), {
1
j j
k
S k S k
j m

>
+ =
s s
Logic
1 2 m
Flip-Flop
Clock
output
sequence
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9.2 pseudo-noise sequences
Properties of maximum-length sequence
have many of the properties possessed by a truly random binary sequence
Balance property : the number of 1s is always one more than the number of 0s
Run property : 1 run(1/2), 2 run(1/4), 3 run(1/8)
total number of run = (N+1)/2 (when N=2
m
-1)
Correlation property :autocorrelation function of maximum-length sequence is
periodic and binary valued.
/ 2
/ 2
2
2 2
0
2 1,
1
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 | |, | |
( ) {
1
,
1 1
( ) ( ) sin ( ) ( )
b
b
m
b c
T
c
T
c
c
c
c
n
c
n
N T NT
R c t c t dt
T
N
T
NT
R
N
N n n
S f f c f
N N N NT
t t
t t
t
o o

=
=
= =
=
+
s
=

+
= +
}

Because of the maximum-length sequence,


R
c(t)
is similar to tat of a random binary wave
Same envelope sinc
2
(fT) for their power
spectral density
Random binary sequence: continuous
spectral density
Maximum-length sequence:delta function
spaced 1/NT
c
Hz
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9.2 pseudo-noise sequences
Choosing a Maximum-Length Sequence
How find the feedback logic : error control code
Table 9.1: shift-register length & feedback taps, image


9.3 A notion of spread spectrum
Attribute of spread-
spectrum modulation
Jamming(fairly powerful
broadband noise, multi-tone
waveform)
Noise-like appearance so as to
blend into the background)
Spread spectrum
modulation

m(t)=c(t)b(t)
r(t)=m(t)+i(t)
=c(t)b(t)+i(t)
z(t)=c(t)r(t)
=
=b(t)+c(t)i(t)
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) c t b t c t i t +
b(t)
spread spectrum
modulation
noise addition
spead spectrum
demodulation
decision
low pass
filterling
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9.4 direct-sequence spread spectrum with
coherent binary phase-shift keying
Passband transmission over a satellite channel






Mode for analysis
Synchronization
Acquisition and tracking
Non-
return-
to-zero
level
encoder
PN code
generator
binary
PSK
modulat
or
product
modum
aotr
low
pass
filter
local PN
code
generator
low
pass
filter
decision
device
binary
data
sequenc
e
b(t)
c(t)
m(t)
x(t)
received
signal
m(t)
c(t)
b(t)+i(t)c(t)
b(t)
local
carrier
decision rule and
search strategy
decision
acquisition
PN
sequence
PN
code
correlation