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NADCA

North American Die Casting Association

Combustible Dust Course for Die Casting Industry Employees


Preventing Dust Explosions and Fires Protecting Employees from the Effects of Dust Explosions and Fires

NADCA
North American Die Casting Association

Unit 1 Preventing Dust Explosions and Fires in the Die Casting Industry Unit 2 Protecting Employees from the Effects of Dust Explosions and Fires in the Die Casting Industry Unit 3 Unit 4

Introductions Class Schedule Instructions

Terminal objectives for this Course


Upon completion of this course students should be able to: 1. Explain how the materials used in die casting facilities may cause dust explosions and fires, the consequences of these events and how they may be prevented and mitigated. 2. Implement the work practices and procedures that will keep employees in the die casting industry safe from the hazards of dust explosions and fire.

Alloy dusts explode!

NADCA
North American Die Casting Association

Preventing Dust Explosions and Fires in the Die Casting Industry


Unit 1

Enabling Objectives
Students should be able to: Discuss dust explosions and fires as a significant safety problem that may affect them; Explain how these events occur and how they may have catastrophic consequences to employees themselves and to the die casting plant; and, Identify the materials used in die casting that may cause dust explosions and/or fires and how they may be prevented or reduced in severity if they occur.

Metal Dust Collector Exploded and Collapsed

This presentation is based on Combustible Dust in Industry. . . - OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB 07-312005) (download at http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/index.html ) NFPA 484 Standard for Combustible Metals, 2009 Ed. (on-line free viewing at http://www.nfpa.org/aboutthecodes/list_of_codes_and_ standards.asp )

Combustible Dust Explosions

Background
This section describes a series of horrific dust explosions that have occurred recently. The US Chemical Safety and Accident Investigation Board (CSB) and OSHA have identified these explosions as representative of a national safety problem. The list includes a spectacular metal dust explosion and fire in Indiana that killed one and injured one employee.

Background
Organic Dust Fires and Explosions: Massachusetts (3 killed, 9 injured) North Carolina (6 killed, 38 injured) Kentucky (7 killed, 37 injured Metal Dust Fire and Explosion: Indiana (1 killed,1 injured) Recent Sugar Dust Explosion

Common Causal Factors


Housekeeping to control dust accumulations unacceptable; Ventilation system design flaws; Lack of Hazard Assessment; Lack of explosion prevention and mitigation.

Phenol formaldehyde resin

polyethylene dust

Imperial Sugar Company Port Wentworth GA Explosion and Fire February 7, 2008 14 Deaths and Numerous serious injuries

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Photo

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Photo

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Photo

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Photo

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Photo

US Chemical Safety Board Found a pattern of catastrophic dust explosions Recommended that OSHA take action MSDS sheets often fail to provide dust explosion information

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Occupational Safety and Health Administration


EFFECTIVE DATE: March 11, 2008

DIRECTIVE NUMBER: CPL 03-00-008

SUBJECT: Combustible Dust National Emphasis Program OSHA inspectors are to go out and inspect facilities across the US.

Dust Explosion Requirements


Dust is combustible. It must be dispersed in air or another oxidant, and The concentration is at or above the minimum explosible concentration (MEC). There is an ignition source, such as an electrostatic discharge, With - spark, confinement - glowing ember, there is an - hot surface, explosion - friction heat, or - a flame that can ignite the dispersed combustible mixture

Dust explosion in a work area Dust


Dust settles on flat surfaces

Some event disturbs the settled dust into a cloud Dust cloud is ignited and explodes

Adapted from CSB

Dust explosion in equipment


Dust collector venting flame jet

Dust explosion in Dust explosion in equipment equipment


Dust Collector

With dispersal and ignition of 2 kg dust by the flame jet

Dust explosions
An initial (primary) explosion in processing equipment or in an area where fugitive dust has accumulated: may shake loose more accumulated dust; or, damage a containment system (such as a duct, vessel, or collector). The additional dust dispersed into the air may cause one or more secondary explosions. These can be far more destructive than a primary explosion.

Primary deflagration inside process equipment

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec. (Timing of actual events may vary)

Shock wave caused by primary deflagration

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Shock waves reflected by surfaces within the building cause accumulated dust to go into suspension

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Dust clouds thrown in the air by the shock waves

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Primary deflagration breaks out of the equipment enclosure - creating a source of ignition

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Secondary deflagration ignited

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Secondary Deflagration is propagated through the dust clouds

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Secondary deflagration bursts from the building

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.

Collapsed building with remaining fires

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 325 Time, msec.
Adapted from OSHA diagrams prepared by John M. Cholin, P.E., FSFPE, J.M. Cholin Consultants, Inc.

Combustible dust explosion hazard may exist in a variety of industries food (e.g., candy, starch, flour, feed), plastics, wood, rubber, furniture, textiles, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, coal, metals (e.g., aluminum, chromium, iron, magnesium, and zinc), and fossil fuel power generation.

Dust Explosion Hazard


. . .any industrial process that reduces a combustible material and some normally noncombustible materials to a finely divided state presents a potential for a serious fire or explosion. (NFPAs Industrial Fire Hazards
Handbook)

Combustible Dust Explosions


Practice Quiz 1. A combustible dust explosion or deflagration may occur when combustible dust, an ignition source, air or other oxidant, ______________ are present. A. Dispersion of the dust B. Confinement C. A. and B. above D. None of the above 2. Combustible dust explosion hazards frequently exist in which of the following industrial activities? A. Collecting beach and lake bottom sand B. Mixing cement C. Manufacturing and finishing magnesium and aluminum alloy castings. D. All of the above

Combustible Dust Explosions


Practice Quiz 3. A combustible dust explosion in a piece of equipment or area where dust has accumulated: A. May shake loose more accumulated dust B. Damage a containment system C. Cause one or more destructive secondary explosions D. All of the above

Combustible Dust Explosions


Practice Quiz 1. A combustible dust explosion or deflagration may occur when combustible dust, an ignition source, air or other oxidant, ______________ are present. A. Dispersion of the dust B. Confinement

C. A. and B. above
D. None of the above 2. Combustible dust explosion hazards frequently exist in which of the following industrial activities? A. Collecting beach and lake bottom sand B. Mixing cement

C. Manufacturing and finishing magnesium and aluminum alloy castings.


D. All of the above

Combustible Dust Explosions


Practice Quiz 3. A combustible dust explosion in a piece of equipment or area where dust has accumulated: A. May shake loose more accumulated dust B. Damage a containment system C. Cause one or more destructive secondary explosions

D. All of the above

Combustible Dust Explosions


In this section, we described a series of horrific dust explosions that have occurred recently. Common causes were identified How the explosions occurred was outlined The factors needed to produce an explosion and the explosion process was discussed in detail.

Particles
In this section, particles that participate in the explosion process are discussed. Their characteristics are identified. How they form in an industrial process is outlined

Metal Dust Particles

Particles
Size Pellets Granules dust particles > 2mm diameter 0.42mm - 2mm < 0.42mm (420m)

Hazard increases as particle size decreases larger surface area for combustion Fine particles may have a larger role in dust cloud ignition and explosion propagation.

Particle Size of Common Materials Common Material Size (microns) Table salt 100 White granulated sugar 450 - 600

Sand 50+ Talcum (baby) powder 10


Mold spores 10 30 Human hair 40 - 300 Flour 1 - 100
Source: OSHA and Filtercorp International Ltd.

Particles

Dusts may occur in the process stream and cause a hazard, regardless of starting particle size of the material
may break into
or

Particles
Practice Quiz 1. Regarding combustible dust particles grinding and polishing waste: A. Hazard decreases as particle size increases B. Hazard increases as particle size decreases C. They produce no hazard D. None of the above 2. Dusts may occur in the process stream and cause a hazard, regardless of starting particle size of the material : A. True B. False

Particles
Practice Quiz 1. Regarding combustible dust particles grinding and polishing waste: A. Hazard decreases as particle size increases B. Hazard increases as particle size

decreases
C. They produce no hazard D. None of the above 2. Dusts may occur in the process stream and cause a hazard, regardless of starting particle size of the material :

A.True
B. False

Particles
In this section, particles that participate in the explosion process were discussed. Their characteristics were identified. How they form in an industrial process was outlined

Metal Dust Particles

Facility Analysis Components


In this section, the various components of facility analysis are discussed. Several factors are identified as critical to the analysis: Material combustibility; Electrical classification; Dust control; Ignition control; and, Damage control.

Dust
Hazard Analysis Couch

Facility Analysis Components


Carefully identify: Materials that can be combustible when finely divided; Processes which use, consume, or produce combustible dusts; Open areas where combustible dusts may build up; Hidden areas where combustible dusts may accumulate; Means by which dust may be dispersed in the air; and Potential ignition sources.

Dust Combustibility
The primary factor in an assessment of these hazards is whether the dust is in fact combustible. Determine if a dust cloud will: Detonate Deflagrate Present a fire hazard Or will Not burn or ignite Testing may be necessary
See Explosives regulations

Dust Combustibility
A detonation is a combustion event that burns faster than the speed of sound: Not common in industry; Not generally the problem in an industrial dust explosion. A deflagration is a combustion event that burns slower than the speed of sound: A pushing force; The mechanism of destruction in most combustible dust explosions.
See Explosives regulations

Dust Combustibility
Combustible dust per NFPA 654 Prior to 2006 - Any finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or smaller in diameter (material passing a U.S. No. 40 Standard Sieve) and presents a fire or explosion hazard when dispersed and ignited in air. 2006 Edition A combustible particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shape.

Dust Combustibility
IH Range
2.5 ug/m3 15 mg/m3 15 g/m3

Explosible Range
1200 g/m3

Concentration 1000X

Dust Combustibility
25 watt light bulb probably can not be
seen through six feet of a mixture of combustible dust in air > Minimum Explosible Concentration What bulb ?

2 meters

40 g/m3 concentration of comb. dust suspended in air


25 watts

Glass

Glass

What is wrong here?

Dust Combustibility
Information sources
Best to rely on As used test data Chemical supplier test data MSDS sheets Variables Published tables Particle size,
Shape Changes in the material produced by process equipment. Many others

Dust from Die Casting Alloys

Chips

Produced Dust

Resulting in

Facility Analysis Components Dust Combustibility


Practice Quiz 1. The primary factor in an assessment of a materials dust explosion hazard is to: A. Determine whether the dust is in fact combustible B. Measure the size of the particles C. Determine if the dust will pass through a #40 USG screen D. None of the above 2. A deflagration is a combustion event that: A. Burns at a rate slower than the speed of sound B. Provides a pushing force C. Is the mechanism of destruction in most industrial dust explosions. D. All of the above

Facility Analysis Components Dust Combustibility


Practice Quiz

3. Dust produced in die casting plants is almost always combustible when dispersed in air at the correct concentration:: A. True B. False

Facility Analysis Components Dust Combustibility


Practice Quiz 1. The primary factor in an assessment of a materials dust explosion hazard is to:

A. Determine whether the dust is in fact combustible


B. Measure the size of the particles C. Determine if the dust will pass through a #40 USG screen D. None of the above

Facility Analysis Components Dust Combustibility


Practice Quiz

2. A deflagration is a combustion event that: A. Burns at a rate slower than the speed of sound B. Provides a pushing force C. Is the mechanism of destruction in most industrial dust explosions.

D. All of the above


3. Dust produced in die casting plants is almost always combustible when dispersed in air at the correct concentration:

A. True
B. False

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations


Electrical equipment and facilities at the plant

Dust Areas NEC Class II Group E

Magnesium Alloys Aluminum Alloys Zinc-Aluminum and Zinc Alloys


(For Zinc alloys utilize as used test data or treat as Class II)

Electrical classification
OSHA Electrical standard
(29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart S) NFPA 70, the National Electrical Code. (NEC) NFPA 499, . . . Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas.

Electrical Equipment
Class Division Group II 1 E F E G

Electrical Classification and Cleaning


If Clean-up is constant and

Dust layer is not apparent; Surface color is discernible; e.g.: Storage area with bags, drums, or closed hoppers; No dust around.

Ordinary Electrical Equipment


See NFPA 499 Figure 5.8(e)

Ledge Dust Surface color obscured with Group E metal dust A hazard and NEC Class II location

Fire Codes* speak plainly


Group E dusts
. . . could cause a short in the electrical equipment . . . . . . (electricity may find) the path of least resistance through a dust layer, heating up the dust particles in it path and thus providing a source of ignition. The resulting electric arc could ignite a dust layer or dust cloud.
*NFPA 499 . . . Hazardous (Classified) Locations (2008) Sec 4.4

Fire Codes* speak plainly


Dusts containing magnesium or aluminum are particularly hazardous, and the use of extreme precaution is necessary to avoid ignition and explosion. Group E. Atmospheres (contain) combustible metal dusts, including aluminum, magnesium, and their commercial alloys, or other combustible dusts whose particle size, abrasiveness, and conductivity present similar hazards. . .
*NFPA 70 National Electrical Code (2005) Article 500

NEC Electrical Classification Class II Group E Metal Dust Areas

Moderate or Dense Indoor unrestricted Dust Cloud area Open or semi-enclosed Source equipment Dust Layer

Class II Group E Metal Dust Areas


Elevation/Side View Plan/Top View

Dust Source

Moderate or Dense Dust Cloud or Layer >1/8 inch

Dust Layer <1/8 inch and Surface Color Not Discernible

Class II Group E Hazardous (Classified) Locations

Electrical Equipment for Class II Group E - Metal Dust Areas


Switches and Motor Controllers in Class II, Div. 1 areas provided with identified dust-ignition proof enclosures for Mg or Al - dust enclosures to be identified for such locations. Motors and Generators must be identified for Class II, Div. 1 or totally enclosed pipe-ventilated

Electrical Equipment for Class II Group E - Metal Dust Areas


Lighting Fixtures IDd for hazardous locations marked to indicate the maximum lamp wattage for Mg or Al dust - IDd for the specific location Receptacles and Attachment Plugs three wire plug-in type identified for Class II locations.

Facility Analysis Components Electrical Equipment


Practice Quiz 1. When dust of the following material has built up around a work area, that location is considered a Class II Group E Hazardous location by OSHA and the NEC: A. Aluminum alloy. B. Magnesium alloy. C. Aluminum-Zinc alloy. D. All of the above. 2. In Class II, Div. 1 Group E areas, Switches and Motor Controllers, Motors and Generators, Lighting Fixtures, Receptacles and Attachment Plugs must be: A. Identified (labeled) as suitable for those areas. B. Open sparking type. C. Vapor proof type. D. All of the above.

Facility Analysis Components Electrical Equipment


Practice Quiz 3. In general, ordinary general service electrical equipment may be installed where:. A. A dust layer is not apparent. B. It is a storage area with bags, drums, or closed hoppers and there is no dust around. C. The surface color is discernible on all equipment, floors, overhead beams and similar items. D. All of the above.

Facility Analysis Components Electrical Equipment


Practice Quiz 1. When dust of the following material has built up around a work area, that location is considered a Class II Group E Hazardous location by OSHA and the NEC: A. Aluminum alloy. B. Magnesium alloy. C. Aluminum-Zinc alloy.

D. All of the above.


2. In Class II, Div. 1 Group E areas, Switches and Motor Controllers, Motors and Generators, Lighting Fixtures, Receptacles and Attachment Plugs must be: A. Identified (labeled) as suitable for those areas. B. Open sparking type. C. Vapor proof type. D. All of the above.

Facility Analysis Components Electrical Equipment


Practice Quiz 3. In general, ordinary general service electrical equipment may be installed where:. A. A dust layer is not apparent. B. It is a storage area with bags, drums, or closed hoppers and there is no dust around. C. The surface color is discernible on all equipment, floors, overhead beams and similar items.

D. All of the above.

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations


After hazards have been assessed, One or more of the following prevention, protection and/or mitigation methods Dust Control Ignition Control Damage Control Training

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations A thorough analysis will consider all possible scenarios in which dust
can be disbursed, The normal process and Potential failure modes Where dust is concentrated: In equipment such as dust collectors, a combustible mixture could be present whenever the equipment is operating. Other locations to consider are those where dust can settle, both in occupied areas and in hidden concealed spaces.

Dust Control
NFPA 484 - contains comprehensive guidance

Casting Remelt Shop area

Some recommendations:
Minimize the escape

of dust from process equipment or ventilation systems;


Use dust collection

systems;

Dust Control
NFPA 484 guidance
Inspect for dust residues in open and hidden areas, at regular intervals; Clean dust residues at regular intervals;

Dust Control
NFPA 484
Use cleaning methods that do not generate dust clouds; Only use vacuum cleaners approved for dust collection;

HAZ LOC

Dust Control
NFPA 484
Locate relief valves away from dust hazard areas; and Develop and implement a hazardous dust
inspection, testing, housekeeping, and control program

(Written with
established frequency and methods).

Dust Control
OSHA discusses housekeeping in detail. Inspection program provides insight on how they interpret housekeeping The program is listed on the web at http://www.osha.gov/pls/osh aweb/owadisp.show_docum ent?p_table=DIRECTIVES& p_id=3830

OSHA NEP on Housekeeping


Clean immediately

whenever a dust layer of


1/32-inch thickness

accumulates (the thickness of a paper clip wire) over a surface area of at least 5% of the floor area of the facility or any given room. 2
Not to exceed 1,000 ft Taking a sample in a dusty area

OSHA NEP on Housekeeping


Include:
Overhead beams, joists, ducts, The tops of equipment,

and other surfaces


Even vertical surfaces if

they are dusty Rough calculations may show surface area of bar joists is approximately 5% of the floor area and the equivalent surface area for steel beams can be as high as 10%.

Areas to observe for dust > 1/32 Inch


Structural members Conduit and pipe racks Cable trays Floors Above ceiling Equipment (leaks around dust collectors and ductwork.)

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations Dust Control


Practice Quiz 1. One of the most important factors for the prevention of dust explosions in the die casting industry is: A. Removal of any fugitive dust through systematic, effective housekeeping. B. Excellent housekeeping. C. Planned, thorough and frequent regular housekeeping activities. D. All of the above.

Practice Quiz

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations Dust Control

2. An important component of any good housekeeping program involves: A. Allowing waste and scrap from machining operations to accumulate around equipment. B. Inspect for dust residues in hidden areas, at regular intervals and, if necessary, removal of any dust. C. Blowing down, or aggressively knocking, or sweeping down any dust. D. All of the above. 2. OSHA inspectors have been instructed that a combustible dust layer of 1/32-inch thickness exceeding 5% or 1000 sq. ft. or room area may indicate that the employer has violated the housekeeping regulations. A. True B. False

Practice Quiz

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations Dust Control

1. One of the most important factors for the prevention of dust explosions in the die casting industry is: A. Removal of any fugitive dust through systematic, effective housekeeping. B. Excellent housekeeping. C. Planned, thorough and frequent regular housekeeping activities.

D. All of the above.

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations Dust Control Practice Quiz


2. An important component of any good housekeeping program involves: A. Allowing waste and scrap from machining operations to accumulate around equipment. B. Inspect for dust residues in hidden areas, at regular intervals and, if necessary, removal of any dust. C. Blowing down, or aggressively knocking, or sweeping down any dust. D. All of the above. 2. OSHA inspectors have been instructed that a combustible dust layer of 1/32-inch thickness exceeding 5% or 1000 sq. ft. or room area may indicate that the employer has violated the housekeeping regulations. A. True B. False

Ignition Control
NFPA 484
Use appropriate electrical equipment and wiring methods; Control static electricity, including bonding of equipment to ground; Control smoking, open flames, and sparks;

No!

Ignition Control
Separate heating systems from dusts;
Hot work permit
_________ _________ _________ _________

Proper use of Adequately

cartridge activated tools; and maintain equipment.

Kaboom!
Grinder

Ignition Control
Other ignition sources
OSHA regulates powered industrial trucks 29 CFR 1910.178 (c): Does not permit powered industrial trucks where combustible metal dust is present in hazardous concentrations; e.g.: Heavy dust concentrations, or Thick dust layer; See NFPA 505.

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations Ignition Control


Practice Quiz 1. Many activities that must occasionally be done in dusty areas produce arcs, sparks and hot surfaces: A. They must be done, so do them as fast as possible. B. Implementing a hot work permit system and following it will control any of these hazards. C. Uncontrolled these ignition sources may cause an explosion. D. A. and B. above.

Other Hazard Analysis Considerations Ignition Control


Practice Quiz 1. Many activities that must occasionally be done in dusty areas produce arcs, sparks and hot surfaces: A. They must be done, so do them as fast as possible. B. Implementing a hot work permit system and following it will control these hazards. C. Uncontrolled, these ignition sources may cause an explosion.

D. A. and B. above.

Damage Control
Methods controlling and reducing hazard Separation of the hazard (isolate with distance); Segregation of the hazard (isolate with a barrier);
Blast barrier

Equipment Rooms

Metal Dust Hazard

Offices and shops

Not < 30 feet

Damage Control
Segregation of the hazard (isolate with a barrier);
contd. Flame front diverter Air Roof Line

Automatic, fastacting isolation valve


Electric initiator Pneumatic actuator

Pressurized reservoir

Gate

Damage Control
Isolation of Equipment
Automatic fast acting valve

Airflow control valves

Damage Control

Diverter valves are to seal mechanically and close all other directions from air or material leakage
Flame front

Hinged device

Diverter Positive shut off flap valve


Normal flow of material

Damage Control
Deflagration venting of a building, room, or area;

Damage Control
Deflagration venting is required for rooms or buildings containing a dust explosion hazard .
Blast barrier

Vent closures:

Must be directed toward a restricted area; Closure must not be a missile hazard; Blast pressure and fireball must not impinge on unrestricted personnel pathways.

Vent wall

Explosion hazard building


Blast resistant construction

Damage Control
NFPA 654 (7.1.2)

Explosion protection system requirements NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems);

Suppression Explosion Total Ignition Suppression Begins Detected Suppression Continues 0 Mil/Sec 30 Mil/sec 20 Mil/Sec 50 Mil/Sec 40

Fire ball expands at 30 feet per second Pressure wave expands at 1100 feet per second

Damage Control

Damage Control
Explosion protection
NFPA 654 (7.1.2)
Mechanical isolation valve Deflagration pressure detectors

Dust collector suppression system


Deflagration suppression device

Damage Control
In general dry dust collectors greater than 8 cubic feet in volume located must be located outside. Outside location Engineered containment Venting to outside Suppression

>8 ft

Damage Control
OSHA has fined facilities where

Dry dust collectors located inside the building (some exceptions) and/or dust collectors returning air back inside the building Ductwork not grounded not constructed of metal

Outside wall

Damage Control
Ducts must be designed to maintain sufficient velocity to ensure the transport of both coarse and fine particles?
E.G.: Ontario Fire Code (5.10.1.10) requires velocity to exceed 1068 meters/minute

Dust flowing

18m/sec 3560 ft/min

>1068 meters/minute
Dust built up

<1068 meters/minute

Facility Analysis Components


In this section, the various components of facility analysis were discussed. Several factors were identified as critical to the analysis: Material combustibility; Electrical classification; Dust control; Ignition control; and, Damage control.
Gentle sweeping only

Facility Analysis Components Damage Control


Practice Quiz 1. The following dry filter type dust collectors larger than 8 cu. ft. in volume may be located inside the plant: A. Cyclone and bag house collectors. B. Collectors that exhaust inside the plant. C. Collectors with explosion relief panels venting inside the work area. D. None of the above. 2. The following dust properly engineered dust collectors may be located inside the plant: A. Wet collectors. B. Dry collectors venting outside to a safe area. C. Dust collectors protected by an explosion suppression system. D. All of the above.

Facility Analysis Components Damage Control


Practice Quiz 3. It is sometimes not possible to suppress a deflagration in combustible metal dust because: A. Flame speed is too fast and too much heat is produced by the expanding fire ball after ignition. B. Not enough heat is produced. C. Flame speed is to slow and the suppression system activates too quickly. D. None of the above

Facility Analysis Components Damage Control


Practice Quiz 1. The following dry filter type dust collectors larger than 8 cu. ft. in volume may be located inside the plant: A. Cyclone and bag house collectors. B. Collectors that exhaust inside the plant. C. Collectors with explosion relief panels venting inside the work area. D. None of the above. 2. The following dust properly engineered dust collectors may be located inside the plant: A. Wet collectors. B. Dry collectors venting outside to a safe area. C. Dust collectors protected by an explosion suppression system. D. All of the above.

Facility Analysis Components Damage Control


Practice Quiz 3. It is sometimes not possible to suppress a deflagration in combustible metal dust because: A. Flame speed is too fast and too much heat is produced by the expanding fire ball after ignition. B. Not enough heat is produced. C. Flame speed is to slow and the suppression system activates too quickly. D. None of the above

Training
Employees need to be trained
To recognize and
prevent hazards

associated with combustible dust: In taking


preventative action;

and/or,
How to alert management.

Hazardous vertical surface accumulation

Training
They need to know
The safe work practices applicable to their job tasks, The overall plant programs for dust control and ignition source control. Training must be Before they start work Periodically to refresh their knowledge When reassigned When hazards or processes change

Management Responsibility Comply with the Hazard Communication


Standard

Training

Have a qualified team conduct a facility analysis (or have one done by qualified outside persons) prior to the introduction of a hazard and Develop a prevention and protection scheme tailored to the operation.
List of Chemicals

Training
Supervisors and managers

should be aware of and support the plant dust and ignition control programs. Their training should include identifying how they can encourage the reporting of unsafe practices and facilitate abatement actions.

Training
Necessary training and education for dust explosion prevention were discussed in this section. Training needs were identified for:
Employees; Supervisors; Managers.

Training
Practice Quiz

1. Who must be trained and educated regarding combustible dust explosions? A.Employees B. Supervisors C. Managers D. All of the above 2. When must training and education be given regarding combustible dust explosions? A. Before they start work and periodically to refresh their knowledge B. When reassigned C. When hazards or processes change D. All of the above

Training
Practice Quiz

1. Who must be trained and educated regarding combustible dust explosions? A.Employees B. Supervisors C. Managers D. All of the above 2. When must training and education be given regarding combustible dust explosions? A. Before they start work and periodically to refresh their knowledge B. When reassigned C. When hazards or processes change D. All of the above

Guidelines and Standards

The Dusty BIG 10 from NFPA


61 . . .Agricultural and Food Processing . . .
68 . . . Venting of Deflagrations 69 . . . Explosion Prevention Systems 70 . . . National Electrical Code, Articles 500, 502, 503 91 . . . Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying . . . 484 . . .Combustible Metals 499 . . . Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations . . . 654 . . .Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of
Combustible Particulate Solids

655 . . . Sulfur Fires and Explosions 664 . . .Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities

Guidelines and Standards


Numerous other references are commonly available:
Prevention and Mitigation of Combustible Dust Explosions and Fire FM Global Data Sheet No. 7-

76, 2008. (download at www.fmglobal.com/fmglobalregistration/ )


6 inches Guidelines for Safe of metal Handling of Powders and dust and chips Bulk Solids Center for

Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) AIChE 2005. 29 CFR 1910.272 - Grain Handling Facilities OSHA General Industry Standard

Summary
In this section of the program, we discussed the causes and occurrence of dust explosions and fires including: Catastrophic consequences; Materials used in particular die casting operations that may be involved in dust explosions and/or fires; Methods to reduce dust explosion severity; and, Explosion prevention techniques.