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By:Prateek Malik M.


Introduction to VANET Routing Protocols of VANET Simulation Setup Simulation Parameters Simulation Assumptions Simulation Metrics Conclusion

VANET :- Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

VANET is a form of Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communication among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment. VANET integrates on multiple ad-hoc networking technologies such as Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11, WiMAX IEEE 802.16, Bluetooth, IRA, ZigBee.

Routing Protocols of VANET

1. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector(AODV) Routing Protocol 2. Dynamic MANET on Demand(DYMO) Routing Protocol 3. Optimized Link State Routing(OLSR) Protocol


Route Request Route Reply Route Error

The Optimized Link-State Routing protocol can be divided in to three main modules:

Neighbor/link sensing Optimized flooding/forwarding(Multi Point Relaying) Link-State messaging and route calculation

Link and Neighbor Sensing

Neighbors and links are detected by HELLO messages. All nodes transmit HELLO messages on a given interval. These contain all heard-of neighbors grouped by status.

Multipoint Relaying
Reduce the number of duplicate retransmissions while forwarding a broadcast packet. Restricts the set of nodes retransmitting a packet from all nodes(regular flooding) to a subset of all nodes. The size of this subset depends on the topology of the network.

Multipoint Relaying- Example

MPR Flooding :1

Multipoint Relaying- Example

MPR Flooding :2

Multipoint Relaying- Example

MPR Flooding :3

Link State Messaging and Route Calculation

As a final level of optimization, an MPR can chose to report only links between itself and those nodes which have selected it as their MPR. This results in the distribution of partial link state information in the network. OLSR periodically exchanges topology information with other nodes at regular intervals.

Simulation Setup
Bi-directionally Coupled (BDC) Simulations
In bi-directionally coupled (BDC) simulations, the traffic and network simulators interact with each other at runtime.

Simulation Scenario used:

Urban Scenario

Simulation Parameters
OS CPU RAM NS-2 Version Number of Nodes Simulation Area Speed Data Packet Size MAC Protocol PHY Standard Total Simulation Time Fedora Core 9 64bit AMD Athlon Single Core 1.8 GHz 1 GB DDR-I 2.33 BDC Urban 15, 30, 45, 60 BDC Urban 2KM X 3KM BDC Urban 40 kph 1000 bytes IEEE 802.11 Overhauled IEEE 802.11p 180 seconds

Simulation Assumptions
Three types of vehicles moving with different speeds are used: Trucks move with maximum speed of 70kph small cars move with maximum speed of 100kph sedans move with maximum speed of 120kph. Parameter Simulation Scenario:Road Traffic Direction Value BDC-URBAN Multidirectional

Road Lanes Speed Environment Obstacles

2 Uniform None

Simulation Metrics
Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR): ratio of the data packets successfully received at the destination and total number of data packets generated at source. PDR = (DataR / DataS) * 100 Where : DataR = Data packets received DataS = Data packets Sent Average End-to-End Delay: This metric gives the overall delay, from packet transmission by the application agent at the source node till packet reception by the application agent at the destination node. Average End-to-End Delay = (T_DataR T_DataS) Where: T_Data R= Time data packets received at destination node T_DataS = Time data packets sent from source node

Using reactive routing protocols in VANETs is not justifiable as proactive routing protocols perform better. OLSR-MOD performs better than all other
Applications sensitive to packet loss will not perform well with both reactive and proactive routing protocols.