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COMPONENTS OF PHONICS FOR READING

Decoding of Short and Long Words


When children begin to learn how to read, they are greeted with simple, known words: cat, mom, and like. As they move through the grades, they are soon confronted with words such as habitat, subaquatic, and unrecognizable words that can leave their heads swimming! As students develop in their reading ability, they need to notice word parts, or "orthographic chunks," to help them decode these words.

Word decoding is a simple way of breaking up a word into understandable parts. Word decoding process can be divided into two which are
Single-syllable words Multi-syllable words

Word 1. bit Step 1: Underline each vowel units. bit Step 2: Separate common prefixes and suffixes by a slash line. There are none to separate. Step 3: Divide the rest of the word into sound using the following rules. There is a single vowel unit, so there is nothing else to divide. Step 4: Mark single vowel units as long ( - ) or short ( ) Using the open or closed rule. Since there is one syllable in this word and the last letter is a consonant, the vowel is short. bt This is one of the key words and should become a sight word to use with other words that have a short i sound.

Step 5: Pronounce the word. Place the word in the context of our original sentence, He bit into the pizza. Think of the word as part of the sentence. This is also a word that can be used to introduce many other words by changing the b to a different letter and producing a different word. (i.e., fit, hit, kit, lit, pit, sit, wit) When you have an opportunity to use key words to teach how the beginning consonant changes the word, it makes for good practice and sometimes a fun assignment. It is equally as much fun to change the last letter to have a new word. ( i.e., bid, big)

Spelling
The ability to read words does not always guarantee that a child will be able to spell a word. How?
Teach students strategies for spelling words. To enhance generalization.

Spelling With C When c is followed by e, i or y, it says /s/ as in cent. Otherwise, it says /k/ as in cat. Examples of the /s/ sound: centre, ceiling, circle, and cycle. Examples of the /k/ sound: cottage, cave, cream, curious, and clever. Spelling With G When g is followed by i, e or y, it says /j/ as in gym. Otherwise, it says /g/ as in gold. Examples of the /j/ sound: gentle, giant, and gymnastic. Examples of the /g/ sound: gallon, gold, guide, glass, and grow. Exceptions: get, got, begin, girl, give, gear, geese, gift, gi rth, geyser, and giddy.