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Using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style for References in Undergraduate Study/ Thesis/ Dissertation

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


1. The Authors last name and the year of publication are placed in parentheses. Example: Through spoken or written language, we construct our voice and identity (Silva and Brice 2004) 2. If the authors name is mentioned in the text, only the date of publication is cited in parentheses immediately after the authors name. Example: Bean (1996) stated that good writing grows out of good talking.

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


3. If both the name of the author and the date are mentioned in the text, parenthetical reference is not necessary Example: In his 2002 article, Broukal metaphorically compared writing to weaving. 4. When the sentence contains a quotation which includes the name of the author, the publication date and page number are enclosed in parentheses. Publication date follows the name of the author while the page number follows the end of quotation. Example: As Richards Rodgers (2001) state, people learn a second language most successfully when the information they are acquiring is perceived as interesting, useful and leading to a desired goal (209).

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


5. When quotation is included but the name of the author is not identified in the sentence, the name of the author, date of publication and page number appear in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Example: Some people will say, No one can think critically for you (Klooster, 2001, 27).

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


6. When referring to a work by two authors, both names are cited each time the reference appears. Example: We build our reasoning on information that may not be shared by other readers (Elder and Paul, 2009). Elder and Paul (2009) list three questions teachers might ask.

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


7. For a work by more than two but fewer than six authors, all names are cited in the first reference. In subsequent references, only the name of the first author is cited followed by et. al.
Example: Brown, Collins and Duquid (1989) articulate that the beginning with a task embedded in a familiar activity shows students the legitimacy of their implicit knowledge and its availability as scaffolding in apparently unfamiliar tasks. Writing persuasive essays requires higher-level critical thinking skills (Brown, et.al. 1989).

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


8. For a work by six or more authors, only the last name of the first author followed by et.al. is cited in first and subsequent references. Example: In order for second language learners to acquire communicative competence, educators must rise above the few schemas scripts repeatedly used in classes (Davies, et.al. 2003). Davies, et.al. (2003) stress the importance of recognizing differences in cultural ideals and stimulate intellectual curiosity about the target culture.

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


9. When citing works by two or more authors with the same last name, initials of the first and given names are included to identify the authors of the text even if their dates of publication differ. Example: M. M.F. Graves (2002) has corroborated with the findings of B.B. Graves (2000)

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


10. When a work is listed in the reference by the title alone, a shortened version of the title is used in the text to identify the work. The title of a book is underlined; the title of the article appears within quotation marks. Example: Papers on language fluency have explored the importance of teaching culture in teaching language (A Collection 2001). On the issue of cultural literacy, the article explains that misunderstanding humor requires a number of cultural reference points (Cultural literacy, 8).

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


11. When a work by a corporate author is cited, the name of the organization as the author is used. In subsequent parenthetical references, well-known abbreviations of the name of the corporate author may be used. For example, Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Example: The Commission on Higher Education Memorandum Order No. 14 (2012) has listed one (1) HEI in Region IV-A

Citations within the Text (In-Text)


12. Parenthetical references may mention more than one work. Multiple citations should be arranged as follows: * For two or more works by the same author, mention according to dates of publication: (Kroll 1991, 2001) * For two or more works by the same author with the same dates of publication, add an identifying letter to each date: (Kroll 2001a. 2001b) * For works by different authors, mention in alphabetical order of last name using a semicolon to separate references: (Calkins 1994; Boscolo 2008).

Reference List (End Reference)


A reference list is equivalent to a BIBILIOGRAPHY, found at the end of the theses, dissertations, and other research papers. In APA style, this list is entitled References. Unlike in the other documentation styles, APA does not have endnotes or footnotes. All cited sources are listed in reference list.

General Guideline
All entries appear in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author. Entries are typed using hanging indention-first line begins flush left, second succeeding lines are indented three spaces from the left. A double space is observed between lines. Works by the same author are arranged chronologically by date of publication, starting with the earliest. If the dates of publication are the same, works are arranged alphabetically by title. If works are different, repeat the name of the author in each entry.

Reference List (End Reference)


1. For Books With one author Example:
Paltridge, B. 2001. Genre and the language learning classroom. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Reference List (End Reference)


With more than one author Example:
Biber, D., and S. Conrad. 2009. Register, genre and style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reference List (End Reference)


With editor only Example: Reid, I., ed. 2006. The place of genre in learning: current debates. Chicago: Chicago University Press. * If more than one editor; eds.

Reference List (End Reference)


Without author or editor Example: Collins COBUILD Dictionary for Advanced Learners of English. 2001. 3rd edition. Harper Collins.

Reference List (End Reference)


Multivolume work Example:
Carter, R., and D. Nunan, eds. 2000-2001. The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reference List (End Reference)


With translator Example: Bahktin, M. 2008. The aesthetics of verbal creation (Bloch, J. Trans.). (Original work published 1992).

Reference List (End Reference)


Reprinted work Example: White, R. and V. Arndt. 2000. Process writing. New York: Longman (Original work published 1991).

Reference List (End Reference)


2. For Periodicals One author Example: Schmidt, R. 1990. The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 11 (2): 129-58. * p. or pp. is used only in magazines and newspapers but not in journals.

Reference List (End Reference)


Two or more authors Example: Brown, J.S., A. Collins, and P. Duguid. 1989. Situated cognition and culture learning. Educational Researcher 18 (1): 32-42.

Reference List (End Reference)


Magazine article without volume number Example: Bianculli, D. 2000. Hurray for Simpsons family values. January 13, 2000, Harpers Magazine, p. 16.

Reference List (End Reference)


Newspaper article without a by-line Example: Kozol, J. Homeless America. March 14, 1994. Washington Post, pp. A-1, C-7.

Reference List (End Reference)


Chapters and Articles in Books Example:
Peck, S. 2001. Developing childrens listening and speaking in ESL. In teaching English as a second or foreign language, ed. M. Celce- Murcia, 139-51. Boston: Heinle and Heinle 2001.

Reference List (End Reference)


3. Technical and Research Reports Example:
Hunt, G.H., & Mohler, S.R. 1958. Aging: A review of research and training grants supported by the National Institutes of Health (U.S. Public Health Service Publication No. 652). Bethesda: National Institutes of Health.

Reference List (End Reference)


4. Non-print Media Film Example: Sinise, G. (Director). 2003. Of mice and men. DVD. Los Angeles: MGM Home Entertainment.

Reference List (End Reference)


Internet source Example:
Kagan, S. 1994. Cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan. http//edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperative learning.htm.