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References vs. bibliography

A reference is a detailed bibliographic description of the items from which you gained information Items that you have used :author(s), date, titles, and where published References are briefly cited within the text and then given in full at the end of the of your work in a reference list

References vs. bibliography

Bibliography: includes in the list, any other items read for background information but not referred to in the text also at the end.

Purpose of citations


Enable the reader to locate the sources you have used Help support your arguments and provide your work with credibility Show the scope and breadth of your research Acknowledge the source of an argument or idea (failure of which should amount to plagiarism)

Purpose of citation


The significant use by a student of other peoples work and the submission of it as though it were his or her own (De Montfort

University Student Regulations)

What to cite

All direct quotations Paraphrased factual statements Borrowed ideas

What to cite

Possible exceptions Facts that seem to be common knowledge, such as the date of the stock market crash

What to cite

When you draw a great deal of information from one single source, you should cite that source even if the information is common knowledge, since the source (and its particular way of organizing the information) has made a significant contribution to your paper

Types of citations

Footnotes (or end notes) Source lines (under charts, exhibits, tables, figures etc) Bibliographies (after the end notes, if any) Contain similar information but presented differently

Citation styles

Citation styles

Author-date system Harvard style, APA Numeric system e.g. Vancouver, MLA Whatever you use, it is important that you are consistent in its application



Collecting and Organising references

Keep a good record of everything that you use

Index cards Endnote, procite, reference manager (RefMan) etc.

Bibliographic softwares



Date of publication can not be established

n.d. e.g. Ngatuni (n.d.)

Date of publication can be established but only approximately

Ngatuni (c.2001)


In-text Citation guide

All ideas from another source, directly quoted or paraphrased Put the authors name and the year of publication at an appropriate point in your text


In-text citations

The authors name does not occur naturally in your writing

There are some evidence (Uiso, 2006) that ..

The authors name is part of the statement

Uiso (2006) provides evidence that

It is claimed that OUT programmes (Ngatuni and Uiso, 2007, p.41)

Two authors


In-text citations

More than two authors

and the fees are affordable too (Victor, et al., 2008)

More than one document by the same year by the same author(s)

In recent studies by Victor(2009a,2009b, 2009c) it is shown that


In-text citations

Citing work described in another work

Try to trace the original item first, otherwise acknowledge both sources in the text but only include the item you actually read in your reference list Examples

Mwajombe (2000) as cited by Ngatuni (2007) argues that Mwajombes study (cited in Ngatuni 2007, p.156) argues that

In-text citations

Information found in more than one source

Include all in the same bracket separating them with a semi-colon (;), and in either alphabetical order or chronologically by date

Several writers (Mwajombe 2000; Uiso 2006; Ngatuni 2007) show that Several writers (Mwajombe 2000; Ngatuni 2007; Uiso 2006,) show that
Consistency is important through out the text

Reference list/bibliography

Provide full references of sources used at the end of your work

Arranged alphabetically by author Any other work you have read but not cited (bibliography) Authors in capitals and dates in brackets after the author Titles italicized or underlined on typed in bold (consistence is again the key)

Reference list/bibliography

Author(s) (year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher

Books with one author Books with two or Three authors

Ngatuni, P. (2007) Doing finance with a difference. 2nd ed. Dar es Salaam: OUT Printers

Ngatuni, P. and Uiso, H. (2008) Mastering the dissertation process. 3rd ed. Dar es Salaam: OUT Printers

Reference list/bibliography

Books Books with more than three authors

Ngatuni, P. et al. (2009) Studying MBA at OUT with a difference. 4th ed. Dar es Salaam: OUT Printers

Books with one or more editor(s)

Victor, M. and Ngatuni, P. (eds) (2009) The art of successful MBA. Dar es Salaam: OUT Printers

Reference list/bibliography

Chapters in a book Author(s) (Year) Title of the chapter. In:AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S), eds. Book Title.Edition.Place of publication: Publisher, Pages. (use p. or pp.) Ngatuni, P. (2009) How to study. In: M. Victor et al, eds. The art of successful MBA. 5th
ed. Dar es Salaam: OUT Printers pp. 135 -155.


Reference list/bibliography

Journal Articles

Author(s) (year) Articles Title. Title of Journal. Vol. No. (Part No./Issue No./Issue month), Pages. (use p or pp)
Ngatuni, P. and Victor, M (2009) Success stories in MBA studies. Tanzania Journal of Business Studies, 3 (2), pp 267-280.


Reference list/bibliography

Newspaper article

Author(s) (Year) Article title. Newspaper title, Day and Month (abbreviated), Pages. Use p. or pp.


Artist (year). Title of the work (material types). At or in (show where found, e.g. in a book or Museum). In: Author/editor of book. (year). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher


Reference list/bibliography

Papers in Conference proceedings

Author(s) (year) Title. In: Editor(s) Title of

conference proceedings/ Place and date of conference. Place of Publication: Publisher,

pages (use p. or pp.)

Publication from a Corporate Body

Name of the Issuing Body (year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Report no. (where relevant), Pages 9use p. or pp.)

Reference list/bibliography

Where the author is a government body, use the country, even if the report has individual author(s).
E.g. URT (2000)


Reference list/bibliography

Thesis or Dissertations

Author (Year) Title. Designation (Level e.g. MBA, Ph.D), Institution.

Ngatuni, P. (2003) The long-run share price

performance of seasoned equity offerings (SEOs): evidence from UK equity rights issues 1986-1995. Unpublished Thesis (Ph.D),
University of Strathclyde.


Reference list/bibliography

Other articles and formats

Electronic or audiovisual (web pages, e-mails, CD Roms, Weblogs, Wiki (wikipedia), video, film, broadcast, podcasts, online images etc (must indicate when it was accessed)

Personal communication (e.g. lecture notes) References (reference works) e.g. dictionaries, encyclopaedias, classical works etc

Other relevant issues

Table titles on top Figure titles below the figure Source under the table, under the figure title (if figures) Indentation (first line hanging) A line for the first name repeating


Repeating a citation

Ibid to repeat a footnote that appears immediately before the current footnote
Thomas, S. (1978) New debate over business records. The New York times, December 31, sec 3. p.5 Ibid., p.6


Repeating a citation

Repeating a footnote but not contiguous to the current footnote

Thomas, S. (1978) New debate over business records. The New York times, December 31, sec 3. p.5 Another reference Thomas, New debate over business records, p. 20.