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1. M.BALACHANDRAN 2. K.BOOBALAN 3. E.DEVAGURU 4. S. JAKIR HUSSAIN 5. W. JONSON 6. I. MANIKAM 7. P. RAJAPRASANNA 8. T.RAJA 9. M.RAMESH BABU 10. D.

REXDEVARAJ

10TME002 10TME004 10TME005 10TME011 10TME012 10TME021 10TME032 10TME034 10TME037 10TME040

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

UNIT III - PSYCHROMETRY

PSYCHROMETRY PROCESSES

INTRODUCTION

In the design and analysis of air conditioning plants, the fundamental requirement is to identify the various processes being performed on air. Once identified, the processes can be analyzed by applying the laws of conservation of mass and energy. All these processes can be plotted easily on a psychrometric chart. This is very useful for quick visualization and also for identifying the changes taking place in important properties such as temperature, humidity ratio, enthalpy etc. The important processes that air undergoes in a typical air conditioning plant are discussed below.

SENSIBLE COOLING

The moisture content of air remains constant but its temperature decreases as it flows over a cooling coil. For moisture content to remain constant, the surface of the cooling coil should be dry and its surface temperature should be greater than the dew point temperature of air. If the cooling coil is 100% effective, then the exit temperature of air will be equal to the coil temperature. However, in practice, the exit air temperature will be higher than the cooling coil temperature. Figure shows the sensible cooling process O-A on a psychometric chart

SENSIBLE COOLING CONT.

The heat transfer rate during this process is given by QC = ma(ho-ha)= ma cpm (TO-TA) Sensible cooling process O-A on Psychometric chart ho ha W

DBT

SENSIBLE HEATING
During this process, the moisture content of air remains constant and its temperature increases as it flows over a heating coil. The heat transfer rate during this process is given by Qh = ma (hB - hO) = ma cpm (TB-TO) where Cpm is the humid specific heat (1.0216 kJ/kg dry air) and ma is the mass flow rate of dry air (kg/s).

COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFICATION

When moist air is cooled below its dew-point by bringing it in contact with a cold surface as shown Fig, some of the water vapour in the air condenses and leaves the air stream as liquid, as a result both the temperature and humidity ratio of air decreases as shown. This is the process air undergoes in a typical air conditioning system. Although the actual process path will vary depending upon the type of cold surface, the surface temperature, and flow conditions, for simplicity the process line is assumed to be a straight line. The heat and mass transfer rates can be expressed in terms of the initial and final conditions by applying the conservation of mass and conservation of energy equations By applying mass balance for the water: ma. wo = ma. wc + mw

HEATING AND HUMIDIFICATION

During winter it is essential to heat and humidify the room air for comfort. As shown in Fig., this is normally done by first sensibly heating the air and then adding water vapour to the air stream through steam nozzles as shown in the figure.

CONT.

COOLING & HUMIDIFICATION

As the name implies, during this process, the air temperature drops and its humidity increases. This process is shown in Fig. As shown in the figure, this can be achieved by spraying cool water in the air stream. The temperature of water should be lower than the dry-bulb temperature of air but higher than its dew-point temperature to avoid condensation (TDPT < TW < TO)

HEATING AND DE-HUMIDIFICATION

This process can be achieved by using a hygroscopic material, which absorbs or adsorbs the water vapour from the moisture. If this process is thermally isolated, then the enthalpy of air remains constant, as a result the temperature of air increases as its moisture content decreases as shown in Fig. This hygroscopic material can be a solid or a liquid. In general, the absorption of water by the hygroscopic material is an exothermic reaction, as a result heat is released during this process, which is transferred to air and the enthalpy of air increases.

MIXING OF AIR STREAMS

Mixing of air streams at different states is commonly encountered in many processes, including in air conditioning. Depending upon the state of the individual streams, the mixing process can take place with or without condensation of moisture

MIXING OF AIR STREAMS

Without condensation: Figure shows an adiabatic mixing of two moist air streams during which no condensation of moisture takes place. As shown in the figure, when two air streams at state points 1 and 2 mix, the resulting mixture condition 3 can be obtained from mass and energy balance

Mixing with condensation

As

shown in Fig., when very cold and dry air mixes with warm air at high relative humidity, the resulting mixture condition may lie in the two-phase region, as a result there will be condensation of water vapor and some amount of water will leave the system as liquid water.

MIXING OF AIR STREAMS CONT

Due to this, the humidity ratio of the resulting mixture (point 3) will be less than that at point 4. Corresponding to this will be an increase in temperature of air due to the release of latent heat of condensation. This process rarely occurs in an air conditioning system, but this is the phenomenon which results in the formation of fog or frost (if the mixture temperature is below 0oC). This happens in winter when the cold air near the earth mixes with the humid and warm air, which develops towards the evening or after rains.

MIXING OF AIR STREAMS CONT

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Identify parts of the chart Determine moist air properties Use chart to analyze processes involving moist air

This is a typical psychrometric chart

This skeleton chart shows the arrangement of the various lines and/or coordinates: 1. saturation temperature 2. dewpoint temperature 3. enthalpy 4. relative humidity 5. humidity ratio (moisture content) 6. wet bulb temperature 7. volume of mixture 8. dry bulb temperature.

The chart is based on a standard barometric (atmospheric) pressure of 101.3 kPa or 760 mm Hg.

The main coordinates of the average psychrometric chart are: saturation curve (100% RH) dry bulb temperature scale line (0% RH.) moisture content or humidity ratio scale. The dry bulb temperature lines run perpendicular to the base coordinate. Each line represents one degree of temperature change, with the scale ranging from -10 C to 55 C.

The wet bulb temperature lines extend diagonally downward from the saturation curve at an approximate angle of 30 to the base line. Each line represents one degree of temperature change, with a scale ranging from 10 C to 33 C. The temperature scale is located on the saturation curve.

The dew point temperature scale is the same scale as the wet bulb scale on the saturation curve. However, the dew point lines extend horizontally to the moisture content scale on the right of the chart.

The relative humidity lines follow approximately the same curves as the saturation curve. The saturation curve is actually the line representing 100% relative humidity, with the dry bulb temperature scale line representing 0% relative humidity or dry air.

The moisture content or humidity ratio lines are the same as the dew point temperature lines. However, the scale for the grams of moisture on the right of the chart is different and reads from 0 to 33 grams of moisture per kilogram of air.

The specific volume lines run at a steep angle from top left to bottom right. The numerical values, along the bottom of the chart at the ends of these lines are given in cubic metres per kilogram of dry air and range from 0.75 to 0.95 m/kg.

Enthalpy is total heat content and is designated by the letter h. In psychrometric terms, enthalpy defines the heat quantity in the air and the moisture in the air. It is measured in kilojoules per kilogram of dry air. The enthalpy lines on a psychrometric chart are the same as the wet bulb lines.

The enthalpy scale is located in convenient sections adjacent to the saturation temperature curve and ranges from 10 to 110 kJ/kg of dry air. The scale can be read by extending the wet bulb lines until they meet the scale.

If the value of any two of the psychrometric properties is known, the value of any other property can be determined from the psychrometric chart. Normal practice is for the dry and wet bulb temperatures of a sample of air to be taken and then these temperatures are plotted on the chart. The two lines representing these temperatures will always cross at some point and this point then represents the condition of the air in the sample. Once this point has been determined, values for other properties can be identified.

GRAND SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (GSHF)

Grand Sensible Heat Factor is the ratio of the total sensible heat to the grand total heat load that the conditioning apparatus must handle, including the outdoor air heat loads. This ratio is expressed as:

GRAND SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR

The air which is passing through the AHU coil increases or decreases the temperature and/or the moisture content. The amount of rise or fall is determined by the total sensible and latent heat load that the conditioning apparatus must handle. The condition of the air entering the apparatus (mixture condition of outdoor and returning room air) and the condition of the air leaving the apparatus is plotted on the psychrometric chart as shown below

ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (RSHF)

The room sensible heat factor (RSHF) represents the psychometric process of the supply air within the conditioned space. Room Sensible Heat Factor is the ratio of room sensible and room latent heat

ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (RSHF)

The supply air to a conditioned space must have the capacity to offset simultaneously both the room sensible and room latent heat loads. The process is plotted on the standard psychometric chart as below

BYPASS FACTOR

In most cooling applications, the air leaving the cooling coil is not entirely saturated since some air does not come in contact with the cooling coil. The fraction of air that misses the coil is called the bypass factor, BF. The bypass factor can be determined from the temperature of water supplied to the cooling coil and from the states of incoming and exiting air.

BYPASS FACTOR

REQUIREMENT OF COMFORT AIR CONDITIONING

COMFORT CHART

The comfort chart, shown in Figure, correlates the perception of comfort with the various environmental factors known to influence it. The dry-bulb temperature is indicated along the bottom. The right side of the chart contains a dew point scale, and the left side a wet bulb temperature scale indicating guide marks for imaginary lines sloping diagonally down from left to right. The lines curving upward from left to right represent RHs. ET* lines are also drawn. These are the sloping dashed lines that cross the RH lines and are labelled in increments of 5F. At any point along any one of these lines, an individual will experience the same thermal sensation and will have the same amount of skin wetness due to regulatory sweating. CLO levels at which 94 percent of occupants will find acceptable comfort are also indicated.

COMFORT CHART

EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE
This factor combines the effects of dry bulb temperature and air humidity into a single factor. It is defined as the temperature of the environment at 50% RH which results in the same total loss from the skin as in the actual environment. Since this value depends on other factors such as activity, clothing, air velocity and Tmrt, a Standard Effective Temperature (SET) is defined for the following conditions: Clothing = 0.6 clo Activity = 1.0 met Air velocity = 0.1 m/s Tmrt = DBT (in K)

TEMPERATURE CONDITION
Inside

Top 60% Top between 20.5 to 24.5oC at a DPT of 2oC Inside design conditions for Summer: Top between 22.5 to 26.0oC at a RH of 60% Top between 23.5 to 27.0oC at a DPT of 2oC

design conditions for Winter: between 20.0 to 23.5oC at a RH of

TEMPERATURE CONDITION

OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR SUMMER

Selection of maximum dry and wet bulb temperatures at a particular location leads to excessively large cooling capacities as the maximum temperature generally persists for only a few hours in a year. Hence it is recommended that the outdoor design conditions for summer be chosen based on the values of dry bulb and mean coincident wet bulb temperature that is equaled or exceeded 0.4, 1.0 or 2.0 % of total hours in an year. These values for major locations in the world are available in data books, such as AHRAE handbooks. Whether to choose the 0.4 % value or 1.0 % value or 2.0 % value depends on specific requirements. In the absence of any special requirements, the 1.0% or 2% value may be considered for summer outdoor design conditions

OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR WINTER

Similar to summer, it is not economical to design a winter air conditioning for the worst condition on record as this would give rise to very high heating capacities. Hence it is recommended that the outdoor design conditions for winter be chosen based on the values of dry bulb temperature that is equalled or exceeded 99.6 or 99.0 % of total hours in an year. Similar to summer design conditions, these values for major locations in the world are available in data books, such as AHRAE handbooks. Generally the 99.0% value is adequate, but if the building is made of light-weight materials, poorly insulated or has considerable glass or space temperature is critical, then the 99.6% value is recommended.

VENTILATION: HUMAN ISSUES

Comfort ventilation Perceived indoor air quality Odors Olfs, decipols Health ventilation Toxicity, illness Exposure guidelines: Threshold limit values (TLVs) Permissible exposure limits (PELs) Time weighted average (TWA) Short-term exposure limit (STEL) Ceiling limit (CLG) Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs)

WHY VENTILATE A BUILDING?

Comfort ventilation

Reduces odors Improves thermal comfort

Health ventilation
Ilutes air contaminants Provides fresh air

Structural cooling

AIR FLOW PRINCIPLES

Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Air flows from areas of positive pressure to areas of negative pressure. Blowing is easier than sucking!

VENTILATION STANDARDS

European approach is to calculate ventilation requirements based on CO2 levels(occupancy) and odors (olfs). The higher ventilation rate from both calculations is the one to be applied. Assumption is that olfs are predictive of IAQ, which in turn is predictive of SBS. minimum ventilation rates and other requirements for commercial and institutional buildings Minimum ventilation rate - offices 5 cfmpp outdoor air Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow

VENTILATION STANDARDS
Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in LowRise Residential Buildings. Nationally recognized indoor air quality standard developed solely for residences. Defines the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in low rise residential buildings.

VENTILATION COMMON ASSUMPTIONS

Increasing the ventilation rate will reduce the concentration of indoor air pollutants. Increasing the ventilation rate will improve occupant perceptions of IAQ. Increasing the ventilation rate will decrease complaints of odors. Increasing the ventilation rate will decrease complaints of the sick building syndrome

COMFORT VENTILATION: ODOR CONTROL

Ventilation is needed to control indoor odors. People are a source of indoor odors (body odor). Body odor (sweaty armpit smell) is caused by 3methyl-2-hexenoic acid, a metabolic byproduct of bacteria that live in the armpit (lipophilic diptheroids) and feed on apocrine secretions. ~90% of men and 67% of women have these bacteria resident in the armpit, and women produce a milder odor than men. ~5% of people cannot smell body odor.