Anda di halaman 1dari 53

SCHEME OF PRESENTATION

Introduction to Genset Why Genset is required Advantages of Gensets Types of Gensets maintained by Mobiserve Genset Capacities General Technical Terms Difference b/w Diesel Engine and Spark Ignition (Gasoline) Engine How a Diesel Engine works Engine Identification Views of an Engine Identification and basic function of Engine parts and components Maintenance requirement Types of maintenance Preventive maintenance Overhauling

GENSET stands for Generator Set Combination of:


Engine Electric Generator or Alternator

Engine is a prime mover Electric Generator generates electricity

AVAILABLE POWER SOURCES AT SITE Normal: WAPDA Power Supply Emergency: Genset Backup: UPS/Battery
1

3 2

Independent Power Source Emergency Power Supply Ease of Mobility Power Supply at Remote Sites Rugged and robust Easy availability of fuel Efficient working even in worst environment Water-cooled Engines have 85% mechanical efficiency

Make

Rating (KVA)
20, 27, 30, 31 31

Quantity C-1
913 226

Total North
666 27

C-2
580 231

C-3
585 181

Perkins John Deere

2744 665

Others TOTAL

14, 17, 20, 24, 27, 30, 31, 100

91

146

243 3652

1230

812

771

839

Thermodynamic Cycle:
Air Intake Compression Ignition Combustion Exhaust

Top Dead Center (TDC) Bottom Dead Center (BDC) Piston Stroke 2-Stroke and 4-Stroke Cylinder Bore Swept Volume

Cylinder Bore

TDC
Piston Stroke

BDC

Diesel Engine
Intake: Ignition: Just AIR Heat of compressed air 14:1 to 25:1

Spark Ignition Engine


Intake: Mixture of PETROL and AIR

Ignition: Spark Plug Compression ratio: 8:1 to 12:1 Less efficient

Compression ratio:

Higher compression ratio leads to better efficiency

Intake:

Fresh Air

Compression: Very high pressure Fuel Injection: Fine fuel spray by Fuel Injectors Combustion: Expansion: Exhaust: Spontaneous combustion Gases expand Burnt gases rush out

Intake: Compression:

Downward piston travel Intake valve is opened Air, fuel mixture enters Intake valve is closed Piston travels back up Intake air is compressed Fuel is injected near TDC Ignition Piston is forced down Piston rises up Exhaust valve is opened Exhaust gases go out

Camsh aft

Fuel Injector

Camsh aft
Intake and Exhaust Valves

Jacket Cooling Water Ports

Combustion: Exhaust:

Piston

Connecti ng Rod

Completes the thermodynamic cycle in FOUR movements of the piston (TWO crankshaft revolutions).

Cranksha ft

Downward Piston Stroke: Upward Piston Stroke:

Exhaust valve opens Exhaust gases rush out Intake port uncovers Fresh air is sucked in Intake port is blocked Exhaust valve closes Compression of intake air Fuel injection Combustion

Completes the thermodynamic cycle in TWO movements of the piston (ONE crankshaft revolution).

Engine Serial Number Significance


Exact identification of Engine Correct procurement and replacement of spare parts

Make
Perkins John Deere

Serial Number Model Number

PERKINS 4000 Series Engine DGB 06 0081 U 0017 B


Stafford ..D Application Code (Genset).G Engine TypeB Number of Cylinders06 Fixed Bill Number (0000 means Configured Product) 0081 United Kingdom..U 17th Engine This Year..0017 Year Letter (B=1996).B

PERKINS ENGINE SERIAL NUMBER

DGB 06 0081 U 0017 B

PERKINS

MADE IN UNITED KINGDOM

JOHN DEERE ENGINE CD3029D500000


CD ............... Producing factory CD= Saran-FRANCE PE= Torreon-MEXICO PY= L & T - John Deere (PuneINDIA) 3029 ........... Engine model designation 3 = Number of cylinders 029 = Total displacement (029 = 2.9 liters) D ................. Aspiration code D= Naturally Aspirated T= Turbocharger

According to Engine Types and Models


Right side Left side Engine top Rear End (Drive End)

Left Side

Rear End

Right Side

Engine Top

Rocker Cover

Air Intake and Exhaust Valves

Rocker Arm Atomize r

Turbochar ger

Camshaft Pisto n Connecting Rod Crankshaft Pulley

Oil Filter

Cranksha ft Oil Sump

Main Parts and Components


Engine Block Crankshaft Main Bearings Connecting Rods Pistons Piston Rings Cylinder Liner Intake and Exhaust Valves Cylinder Head Engine Gaskets Oil Sump Flywheel Lubricating Oil Pump Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Injectors Governor Cooling Water Pump Radiator Fan Radiator Fuel Filter Lubricating Oil Filter Weather Proof Enclosure Muffler

Basic Structure of an Engine CONTAINS: Crankshaft Pistons and Connecting Rods Cylinder Head All other ancillaries

CONVERTS
Reciprocating Movement of PISTON and CONNECTING RODS to: Rotational Movement

Cranksh aft Pulley Flywhe el

Cranksh aft

Cranksh aft Gear

Minimize friction Frictionless movement of crankshaft Avoid metal to metal contact Ease of maintenance Reduced maintenance cost

Connects: Piston Crankshaft

Form Combustion Chamber Power generation by combustion gases Allow reciprocating movement of pistons

Sealing between Combustion Chamber and Oil Sump Maintain compression chamber pressure Efficient compression Types: Compression Rings Oil Scraper Rings

Provide timed passage to: Intake air Exhaust gases Controlled opening and closing by Rocker Arms and Camshaft Fitted in Cylinder Head Types: Air Intake Valves Exhaust Valves

Top of an engine Fitted with: Air Intake Valves Exhaust Valves Fuel Injectors Rocker Arm Assembly

Air Intake and Exhaust Ports Cooling Water passages

Top Gasket or Cylinder Head Gasket: Provide sealing between Cylinder Head and Cylinder Block Bottom Gasket or Oil Sump Gasket: Provide sealing between Cylinder Block and Engine Oil Sump

Engine oil storage Provides: Oil suction to Oil Pump Oil drain facility Easy access for engine inspection and maintenance

Stores inertial force of movement Absorbs engine jerks Provides smooth engine rotational speed Ring gear connected with Starter Motor for initial start

Gear type pump Driven by Crankshaft To supply lubricating oil to Engine moving parts:
Main and Big End Bearings Camshaft Rocker Arms Cylinders and Pistons Timing Gears etc

Take suction from Engine Oil Sump

Fuel Tank Fuel Lift Pump Fuel Filter Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Injectors

Fuel Tank

Gear type pump Driven by Crankshaft To supply accurate fuel quantity in a specific order and sequence to the Engine through Fuel Injectors

Take suction from Fuel Tank through:


Primary Fuel Filter Fuel Lift Pump Secondary Fuel Filter Fuel Tank

Supply diesel fuel to the engine Produce very fine fuel spray into the cylinder Better Air/Fuel mixture, efficient combustion Actuated by fuel pressure Fuel is pressurized by Fuel Injection Pump

Fuel Tank

Regulates the Idling Speed and Maximum Speed Controls the rate of fuel delivery Without Governor engine can easily overspeed resulting

DESTRUCTION
Diesel Engine Spark Ignition Engine Types: Mechanical Governor Electronic Governor (ECM, ECU) Fuel is controlled Air is throttled
Govern or

Fuel Tank

Water is used in Cooling System NEVER use SALINE WATER in Engine Cooling System Recommended: Distilled Water or Deionized Water Ethylene Glycol Propylene Glycol Water/Glycol mixture provides protection against: Boiling Freezing Water Pump cavitations 1:1
Coolant Temperature Gauge

Water/Glycol mixture:
Concentration 50 Percent 60 Percent

Ethylene Glycol Freeze Protection Anti-Boil Protection -36 C -51 C 106 C 111 C

Combustion process generates heat Excessive heat can damage engine components Cooling system removes heat Coolant: Distilled Water, De-ionized Water Water is circulated by Cooling Water Pump Water is circulated through engine water jackets

Forced air for better heat transfer i-e Convectional Heat Transfer Fitted on a belt driven pulley Crankshaft pulley drives Radiator Fan Normally V-Type Belts are used Imbalanced, damaged or fan with loose belt may cause vibration

Important component of Cooling Water System Water passes through Fine Copper Tubes Radiator fan blows air through fins Heat is transferred: Copper Tubes Fins Convectional Heat Transfer

Engine needs fine fuel spray Fuel spray by Fuel Injectors To maintain fuel quality Fuel Filters are used Filters separate: Water Contamination Particulate Contamination Types: Primary Fuel Filter Secondary Fuel Filter

Lubricating Oil passes through fine orifices L.O makes a very fine oil film between two metal Prevents metal to metal contact L.O quality is most important To maintain L.O quality Oil Filters are used Oil Filters remove Particulate Contamination

Used for initial starting of an Engine Battery (DC Power) runs Starting Motor Starting Motor turns the Crankshaft Thermodynamic cycle completes and Engine starts

Protects Engine and Generator from:


Harsh environment Relative humidity Dust/Dirt Malicious damage Theft

Sound attenuation

Fitted on Exhaust System Sound attenuation

We need uninterrupted Electrical Power Supply Genset runs when WAPDA Power Supply is not available Genset Running Conditions: Harsh environment Continuous operation Maintenance improves: Equipment/Machinery life Service quality Maintenance reduces unexpected downtime and major breakdowns

Preventive Maintenance (PM)


To prevent a defect or damage

Corrective Maintenance (CM)


Fault finding Fault rectification

Change Engine Oil Change Oil Filter Change Fuel Filter Change Air Filter Radiator inspection and cleaning (if chocked) Battery inspection General cleaning

Cylinder Liners Pistons Piston Rings Gudgeon Pin Engine Valves Valve Seats Valve Springs Valve Guides Main Bearings Big End Bearings Con-rod Bush Front & Rear Oil Seals Engine Gaskets