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Subtopic 1.

The Circulatory System

Circulatory system consists of a network of tubes (vessels) that deliver useful materials to all cells of the body and then take away their waste products.

In mammals the circulatory system consists of the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system.)

Cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood.

Main components of blood

Comparison three types of blood.


Erythrocytes Biconcave disc No nuclues Leucocytes Granulocyte No fixed shape Granular cytoplasm Lobed nucleus Agranulocytes Spherical shape Cytoplasm has no granules Spherical or bean shaped nucleus Diameter 8-20m Platelets No fixed shape No nucleus

Shape

Size Number

Approximately 8000/mm3 of blood Bone marrow, lymph and Formed in lymphatic system 120 days A few days to a few Lifespan years Transport oxygen Neutrophils are Transport carbon involved in dioxide phagocytosis Lymphocytes Function produce antibodies Monocytes are involved in phagocytosis Effect on an Decrease in number of Large numbers of cells imbalance in the cells results in anaemia. result in leukemia. number of cells

Diameter 8m Thickness 2m Approximately 5 million/mm3 of blood Bone marrow

Diameter 2-3m

Approximately 250 000/mm3 of blood Bone marrow A few hours to a few days Secrete the enzyme thrombokinase which is involved in the blood clotting mechanism

Deficiency in platelets results in the inability of blood to clot.

Functions Of Blood In Transport


Transport of oxygen from the lungs to the cells in all parts of the body. Transport of carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs to be removed. Transport of absorbed food materials Transport of excretory waste products Transport of heat Transport of hormones Transport of water to tissues

Structure Of Human Blood Vessels

Differences between arteries, capillaries and veins.


Arteries carry blood away from the heart Contain oxygenated blood except the pulmonary artery Walls have thick layer of muscles No valves present except semilunar valves at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery Blood is under high pressure Capillaries connect arterioles to venules Acts as sites for exchange of substances with the cells Walls are thin, consisting of only one layer of cells. No muscles present. No valves present Veins Carry blood to the heart Contain deoxygenated blood except the pulmonary vein Walls have a thinner layer of muscles Valves present to prevent backflow of blood

Blood flows in spurts or pulses

Pressure is lower than in arteries but higher than in veins Blood flows smoothly and not in pulses

Blood flows under lower pressure than arteries Blood flows smoothly and not in pulses

Structure Of The Human Heart

Circulatory System In Insects, Fish, Amphibians And Human


Insect Open circulatory system. Haemolymph flows in spaces known as haemocoel. Fish Closed and single circulatory system. Amphibians and reptiles Closed, double and incomplete circulatory system. Humans Closed, double and complete circulatory system.

Heart has three compartments, two atria and one ventricle.

Heart has four chamber, two atria and two ventricles.

Circulatory System In Insects

Open circulatory system. Haemolymph flows in spaces known as haemocoel.

Circulatory System In Fish

Closed and single circulatory system.

Circulatory System In Amphibians


Closed, double and incomplete circulatory system. Heart has three compartments, two atria and one ventricle.

Circulatory System In Human


Closed, double and complete circulatory system. Heart has four chamber, two atria and two ventricles.