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Mrs.P.Sathya Asso.Professor & HOD

An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for something. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event this is often referred to as the attitude object

Attitudes are judgments. The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an individual's degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual.

Definition- Attitude
Predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation.
-Business dictionary

1.Point scale 2.Differential scale (LL Thurstone scale) 3.Summated scale(Likert scale) 4.Scalogram (Guttman method) 5.The Q-Sort Scaling technique 6.Semantic differential attitude scale

1. Point Scale
Method: 1. Select the words which will give the opinion 2. The respondent is cross-out every word 3.The attitude of a respondent is known by calculating the number of words Crossed or not crossed. 4. The words selected should be suggestive of an attitude and the opposite words should also be given at the same time.

Contd 4. one point is given to each agreement or disagreement whichever is to be chosen

ContdDifficulties: 1. The words may not be dichotomous in nature 2. The neutral or confused opinions cannot be represented 3. Adequate number of words expressing the same attitude may not be found

2. Differential scale
It is one of the Multi Item Scales developed by L.L. Thurstone. It is used to measure the social phenomenon

The procedure
1. Collect a large number of statements (perhaps as may as

several hundred)related to the attitude in question 2. Have a number of judges (perhaps 20 or more) sort the statements independently into 11 piles that vary from the most favorable statement to neutral statements to most unfavorable statements. 1st group: Unfavourable statements to the specified issue 2nd group: the next unfavourable statements to the specified issue 11th group: Favourable statements 6th group: the point at which the attitude is neutral 3. Avoid ambiguous, vague and irrelevant statements 4. Evaluated statements evenly spread out from one extreme to another


It is important to note that there are 11 attitude positions because in a scale with odd number of parameters, it is easier to identify a neutral position.

1. Thurstone scales are not widely used for
because the are time consuming during preparation 2. The ratings may be influenced by the Judges personal attitude 3. Different individuals can obtain exactly the same score from agreeing with quite different items.

3. Summated(Likert) scales
It requires a respondent to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the attitude object.

It consists of series of statements Respondent indicate the degree of agreement or disagreement Each response is given a numerical score Total score is identified by summing up different scores It uses degrees of agreement: Eg: Strongly agree/ Agree/Neutral/ Disagree/Strongly Disagree

Common used degree of agreements

Method of construction is less cumbersome More precise and definite statements It reveals degrees of agreement on five point scale Empirically related statements can be stated

Total score may be same in many cases There is no objective basis for expressing different degrees of agreement

4. Cumulative scale(Bogardus social distance scale)

Respondent is given a number of questions to express agreement or disagreement over an issue. Items are arranged in such a way that a respondent respond favourably to item no.2 may also replies favourably to item no.1.

To measure the attitude towards a particular racial group or groups.

Bogardus type scale

Relationship I would accept 1. Marriage 2. Friendship English 1 2 Negro 1 2 French 1 2 Chinese 1 2

3. Neighbor

4 5

4 5

4 5

4. Employment 4 5. Citizenship 5

5.Scalogram (Guttman method)

According to guttman, a universe of content can be considered to be uni dimensional only if it yields a perfect, or nearly perfect cumulative scale. The scalogram technique is based on reproducibility criterion.

Contd The view of judges are not necessary in this case. A diagram in which individual responses are laid out is called a scalogram.

6.The Q-Sort Scaling technique

The method is widely applied in the study . of personality. The individual can make study of changes in his own image ,or in his ideal person and so on.

The Q-Sort consists of a number of cards, often as many as 40 or 50, each consisting of a single trait, belief, or behavior. The goal is to sort these cards into one of five columns ranging from statements such as, very much like me to not at all like me. There are typically a specific number of cards allowed for each column, forcing the client to balance the cards evenly. The qualities in each column are then recorded and the results are used to assist the client in determining issues he or she wishes to work on in treatment. The Q-Sort can also be completed during and after treatment to assess changes and progress toward the self-determined goals.

Sample Q -sort

7.Semantic Differential Scale

The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. Jovan Musk is: Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned

The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at the left side of the scale and sometimes at the right. This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels. Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale.

A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring SelfConcepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts
1) Rugged 2) Excitable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Calm

3) Uncomfortable 4) Dominating 5) Thrifty 6) Pleasant 7) Contemporary 8) Organized 9) Rational 10) Youthful 11) Formal 12) Orthodox 13) Complex 14) Colorless 15) Modest

:---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Submissive :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Obsolete :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unorganized :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Emotional :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Mature :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Informal :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Liberal :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Simple :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Colorful :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Vain

How Do We Measure Attitude

Collection of Items or Statements

Informally discuss the issue with the people, extension workers, experts, NGOs and also consult secondary sources. Collect a set of such statements on the issue as the acceptance or rejection of each should imply a different degree of favourable or unfavourable attitude towards that issue. It could be a negative or a positive statement such as: TV is not doing any good to society (negative statement) TV is a good source of entertainment (positive statement)

Editing of the Statements

After having collected as many relevant statements as possible, the next step is to go through each statement carefully and edit them by keeping the following criteria

Avoid such statements as

Refer to the past (At one time TV used to attract large number of people) Are factual (such as TV is a modern medium) Can be interpreted in more than one way (TV is good in some ways and bad in other ways) Are irrelevant to the object under consideration Are likely to be endorsed by almost every one or no one (Buying a TV set proves expensive) Contain more than one thought Contain double negatives (Most people do not think that TV does not entertain) Contain words that may not be understood by the respondents (TV is an electronic medium) Contain such universals such as all, always, none, never, often etc as these introduce ambiguity Contain such words as only, just, merely etc.

Retain such statements as Contain only one complete thought Are short Are simple, clear and direct

After editing and rewriting, take the help of your colleagues, experts and other informed persons to retain good statements. You may end up with15-20 statements

1.Sometimes I feel our village was better without TV. 2. After watching TV, one feels one has wasted ones time. 3. TV has no place in the socio-cultural milieu of the rural set-up. 4. If one can afford, one must buy a TV set of ones own 5. TV viewing farmers are better informed about what is happening in the outside world. 6. Everyday TV offers useful and good programmes. 7. Whatever progress our village has made in the sphere of agriculture, it would have done so even without TV. 8. It is better to do some work in the house rather than go to watch TV. 9. Watching TV is a pleasant way to spend a few evening hours.