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# Design of Pelton

turbines
When to use a Pelton
turbine
Energy conversion in a
Pelton turbine
Outlet Outlet of
the runner
Inlet of
the runner
Outlet of
the needle
Inlet of
the needle
2
2
c
Main dimensions for the
Pelton runner
The ideal Pelton runner
Absolute velocity from nozzle:
n 1
H g 2 c =
1
H g 2
c
c
n
1
1
=

=
Circumferential speed:
n
u 1
1
H g 2
2
1
2
c
u = =
5 . 0 u
1
=
Euler`s turbine equation:
) c u c u ( 2
u 2 2 u 1 1 h
= q
1 ) 0 5 , 0 0 . 1 5 , 0 ( 2 ) ( 2
2 2 1 1
= = =
u u h
c u c u q
1 c
u 1
= 0 c
2 u
=
The real Pelton runner
- For a real Pelton runner there will always be losses.
We will therefore set the hydraulic efficiency to:
96 . 0
h
= q
The absolute velocity from the nozzle will be:
995 . 0 c 99 . 0
u 1
< s
C
1u
can be set to 1,0 when dimensioning the turbine.
This gives us:
) c u c u ( 2
u 2 2 u 1 1 h
= q

48 , 0
0 , 1 2
96 , 0
c 2
u
u 1
n
1
=

q
=
From continuity equation:
u 1
2
s
c
4
d
z Q
t
=

u 1
s
c z
Q 4
d
t

=
Where:
Z = number of nozzles
Q = flow rate
C
1u
=
n
H g 2
The size of the bucket
and number of nozzles
4 . 3
d
B
1 . 3
s
> >
Rules of thumb:
B = 3,1 d
s
1 nozzle
B = 3,2 d
s
2 nozzles
B = 3,3 d
s
4-5 nozzles
B > 3,3 d
s
6 nozzles
Number of buckets
17 > z
empirical
Number of buckets
Runner diameter
Rules of thumb:
D = 10 d
s
H
n
< 500 m
D = 15 d
s
H
n
= 1300 m

D < 9,5 d
s
must be avoided because water
will be lost
D > 15 d
s
is for very high head Pelton
Speed number
z Q e = O
5 , 0 u
0 , 1 c
1
u 1
=
=
4
d
c
4
d
Q
2
s
u 1
2
s
t
=
t
=
D
1
H g 2 D
H g 2
H g 2 D
u 2
H g 2
n
n
n
1
n
=

=

=

e
= e
4
z
D
d
s
t
= O
4
z d
D
1
z Q
2
s
t
= e = O
For the diameter: D = 10 d
s

and one nozzle: z = 1
09 , 0
4
1
10
1
4
z
D
d
s
=
t
=
t
= O
For the diameter: D = 10 d
s

and six nozzle: z = 6
22 , 0
4
6
10
1
4
z
D
d
s
=
t
=
t
= O
The maximum speed number for a Pelton
turbine today is O = 0,22
The maximum speed number for a Pelton
turbine with one nozzle is O = 0,09
Dimensioning of a
Pelton turbine
1. The flow rate and head are given
*H = 1130 m
*Q = 28,5 m
3
/s
*P = 288 MW

2. Choose reduced values
c
1u
= 1 c
1u
= 149 m/s
u
1
= 0,48 u
1
= 71 m/s

3. Choose the number of nozzles
z = 5

4. Calculate d
s
from continuity for one nozzle

m 22 , 0
c z
Q 4
d
u 1
s
=
t

=
5. Choose the bucket width
B = 3,3 d
s
= 0,73 m

6. Find the diameter by interpolation

D/d
s
H
n
[m]

10

15

400

1400

m 0 , 3 d 65 , 13 D
65 , 13 8 H 005 , 0
d
D
s
n
s
= =

= + =
7. Calculate the speed:

8. Choose the number of poles on the generator:

The speed of the runner is given by the generator and
the net frequency:

where Z
p
=number of poles on the generator

The number of poles will be:

rpm 452
D
60 u
n
2
D
60
n 2
2
D
u
1
1
=
H

H
= e =
] rpm [
Z
3000
n
p
=
7 64 , 6
n
3000
Z
p
= = =
] rpm [ 6 , 428
Z
3000
n
p
= =
m 16 , 3
n
60 u
D
2
D
60
n 2
2
D
u
1
1
=
H

=
H
= e =
9. Recalculate the speed:

10. Recalculate the diameter:

11. Choose the number of buckets

z = 22

12. Diameter of the turbine housing (for vertical turbines)

13. Calculate the height from the runner to the water level
at the outlet (for vertical turbines)

m 4 , 9 B K D D
g sin Hou
= + =
K

z

8

9

1

6

4

m 1 , 3 D B 5 . 3 Height = ~ ~
GE Hydro
Jostedal, Sogn og Fjordane
Jostedal, Sogn og Fjordane
GE Hydro
Example
Khimti Power Plant
1. The flow rate and head are given
*H = 660 m
*Q = 2,15 m
3
/s
*P = 12 MW

2. Choose reduced values
c
1u
= 1 c
1u
= 114 m/s
u
1
= 0,48 u
1
= 54,6 m/s

3. Choose the number of nozzles
z = 1

Example
Khimti Power Plant
4. Calculate d
s
from continuity for
one nozzle

5. Choose the bucket width
B = 3,2 d
s
= 0, 5 m

m
c z
Q
d
u
s
15 , 0
4
1
=

=
t
6. Find the diameter by interpolation

D/d
s
H
n
[m]

10

15

400

1400

m d D
H
d
D
s
n
s
7 , 1 3 , 11
3 , 11 8 005 , 0
= =

= + =
7. Calculate the speed:

8. Choose the number of poles on the
generator:
The speed of the runner is given by
the generator and the net frequency:

where Z
p
=number of poles on the
generator

The number of poles will be:

rpm
D
u
n
D n D
u
613
60
2 60
2
2
1
1
=
H

H
= =e
] rpm [
Z
3000
n
p
=
5 9 , 4
3000
= = =
n
Z
p
] [ 600
3000
rpm
Z
n
p
= =
m
n
u
D
D n D
u 74 , 1
60
2 60
2
2
1
1
=
H

=
H
= =e
9. Recalculate the speed:

10. Recalculate the diameter:

11. Choose the number of buckets

z = 22