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CHAPTER 2

2.1 MATTER
Most of the things that we could see in this world are MATTER

What is matter?
Matter means: - anything that occupies space & has mass - made up of tiny & discrete particles - Exist as element @ compound
Next

A pure substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substance physically & chemically

Matter

Usually made up of two or more elements which are chemically bonded together
Matter

1. Matter are made up of tiny & discrete particles 2. Size of particles are very minute ~~ 1x 10-7cm

3. Consist of atoms, molecules ions


Next

Lets see the particles in bromine liquid

Particle theory

The smallest particle of an element and not breakable anymore. Examples:


Atom of hydrogen atom of magnesium atom of oxygen atom of chlorine
O
Cl
Particle theory

Mg

A group of two @ more atoms, which might consist of: one type of element (Element) @ different types of element (Compound)

Examples of element molecules:

Molecule of hydrogen gas Molecule of oxygen gas Molecule of chlorine gas

Examples of compound molecules: Molecule of water, H2O


N

Molecule of ammonia, NH3 Molecule of ethanol, C2H5OH

C
Particle theory

Ions are atoms which have charge


+ Positively-charged ion /cation (loss e-)

Negatively charged ion / anion (gain e-)

Examples of ions:
Hydrogen atom
H
Lose electron

H+

Hydrogen ion

Magnesium atom
Mg
Lose electron

Magnesium ion
Mg2+

Oxygen atom
Chlorine atom

O Cl

Gain electron

Oxide ion O2
-

Gain electron

Cl
-

Chlorine ion
Particle theory Symbol of element

Kinetic means motion (move) Kinetic theory states that: 1. Matter consist of particles which constantly moving

2. particles move in random motion , collide with each other

A. substance is cooled, - particles lose kinetic energy - move slower

B. substance is heated, - particles gain kinetic energy - move faster

Heat energy makes particles move faster!!!

Experiment which supports the kinetic theory:


Investigating the diffusion of particles in a solid, liquid and gas

What is diffusion ?

How diffusion supports the kinetic theory ?

Diffusion happens anyway that different concentration of particles

Is the rate of diffusion different in solid, liquid, and gas state?


Lets get an experiment to check it out!!!

Diffusion in Solid (membrane)

Diffusion in Liquid ( )

Diffusion in Gas (air)

Diffusion affected by Density

The conclusion is.


Diffusion happens in solid, liquid, and gas states Diffusion occurs slowest in solid, faster in liquid and fastest in gas Diffusion occurs faster in subtance with lower density Diffusion supports kinetic energy

The Physical States of Matter


Solid Gas
Liquid

The Arrangement of Particles

The Shape & Volume of Particles

The Movement & Energy Content of Particles

The Attraction Force between Particles

The Physical Changes of Matter


Melting
Solid

Sublimation
Sublimation

Freezing

Boiling
Liquid Gas

Condensation

Determine the Melting Point of Naphthalene


Melting point the temperature which a solid becomes liquid

Diagram of heating naphthalene

Solid naphthalene

Water

Q1-Q4

Q5-Q7

Heating curve of naphthalene


Temperature / C

79C
A

Time / minute
Q1-Q4 Q5-Q7

What is the Melting point? A: 79C

What is the physical state at B-C? A: solid and liquid


Where is point that Melting process started? A: B Where is point that Melting process ended? A: C

graph

apparatus

Why the curve of heating has no change at B-C? A: because the heat energy absorbed by naphthalene molecules to overcome the forces of attraction to becomes liquid
Why solid naphthalene heated in water ? A: to ensure a uniform heating If the melting point of Substance X is 123C, can we still use water as medium? Why? A: No. Because its melting point is higher than the boiling point of water. We can use oil bath to replace water. graph apparatus
Physical changes

Determine the Freezing Point of Naphthalene Freezing point the temperature which a solution becomes solid

Cooling curve of naphthalene


Temperature / C
E

79C

H
Time / minute
Q1-Q4 Q5-Q7

Is the freezing point same with the Melting point? A: Yes, both are 79C
What is the physical state change in this experiment? A: Liquid naphthalene changes to solid Where is the point that freezing process started? A: F

Where is the point that freezing process ended? A: G

Why the curve of heating has no change at F-G? A: because the heat energy released during formation of bonds is equal to the heat released to surroundings Why liquid naphthalene in the boiling tube is cooled inside a conical flask? A: to ensure a uniform cooling

Different solution has different boiling point & freezing point

Diagram of cooling naphthalene

Liquid naphthalene

Empty conical flask

Q1-Q4

Q5-Q7

2.2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

The Historical Development Of Atomic Models


John Dalton imagine atom as a indivisible tiny ball J.J. Thomson discovered electrons Ernest Rutherford discovered proton, mass of atom concentrated in nucleus Neils Bohr proposed the electrons move in shells around the nucleus James Chadwick proved the existence of neutrons

Subatomic Particle In An Atom

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


Proton

Electron
Neutron

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


Neutron

Proton

Electron

Nucleus of atom

Electron shells

Subatomic Particle In An Atom

Subatomic Particle In An Atom

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

e-

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

p +1

e-

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

p +1

n 0

e-

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

p +1

n 0

e-1

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

p +1

n 0

e-1

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

p +1

n 0

e-1

Relative Mass
Location

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge

p +1

n 0

e-1

Relative Mass
Location

1/1240 0

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge Relative Mass

p +1 1

n 0 1

e-1 1/1240 0

Location

in the nucleus atom

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol Electric Charge Relative Mass

p +1 1

n 0 1

e-1 1/1240 0

Location

in the nucleus atom

in the nucleus atom

Subatomic Particle In An Atom


PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

Symbol
Electric Charge Relative Mass Location

p
+1 1 in the nucleus atom

n
0 1 in the nucleus atom

e-1 1/1240 0 Electron shells which around the nucleus atom

Symbol of Element
Nucleon number
40

Proton number

Ca 20

Symbol of element

-When an atom is neutral , ( its number of proton = e- number of protons = 20 so number of elecrons = 20 - 2.electron configuration = 2.8.8.2 valence electron = 2

1.refer

ions)

3.Next

Electron Configuration
Also known as electron arrangement
How electrons fill into the shells?

Hydrogen Proton number

H 1

Helium Proton number

He 2

1 Lithium Proton number Li 3

2 Beryllium Proton number Be 4

2.1

2.2

Boron proton number

B 5

Carbon Proton number

C 6

2.3

2.4

Nitrogen Proton number

N 7

Oxygen Proton number

O 8

2.5

2.6

Fluorine Proton number

F 9

Neon Proton number

Ne 10

2.7

2.8

Sodium Proton number

Na 11

Magnesium Proton number

Mg 12

2.8.1

2.8.2

Aluminium Proton number

Al 13

Silicon Proton number

Si 14

2.8.3

2.8.4

Phosphorus Proton number

P 15

Sulphur Proton number

S 16

2.8.5

2.8.6

Chlorine Proton number

Cl 17

Argon Proton number

Ar 18

2.8.7 Potassium Proton number K 19

2.8.8 Calcium Proton number Ca 20

2.8.8.1

2.8.8.2

Conclusion: 1st Shell: max 2 e2nd Shell: max 8 e3rd Shell: max 8 e-

1) Because they have the same number of orbits, they have 2 orbits / electron shells 2) Group 1 is alkaline metals, hydrogen is a type of gas / hydrogen is not alkaline metal 3) They have stable // electron arrangement (Helium, pn=2 duplet, Argon, 2.8.8 octet)

4) Li, Be, B, C, N,O,Br, Ne 5) i) K, Ca, Mg ii) C, S, Cl

ARRANGEMENT OF SHELLS IN AN ATOM


2 ELECTRONS 8 ELECTRONS

NUCLEUS

8 ELECTRONS

1 2 3 4
18 ELECTRONS

Electron arrangement in the carbon atom


12 6

proton number = 6

number of protons = 6
number of electrons = 6

= electron
nucleus

2.4

Number of valence electrons = 4

23

11

Na
= electron Nucleus

number of protons = 11 proton number = 11

number of electrons = 11

Number of valence electrons = 1

2.8.1

Symbol of element

Try to draw out the electron arrangement in shells

Draw & state the electron arrangement of the elements below

15 7

24

12

39 19

Let us learn some chemical words !!

Proton number (p) number of protons in the nucleus of atom Nucleon number (p+n) total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of atom

3. Valence electron the electrons in the outermost shell 4. Electron configuration arrangement of electron

Repeat them !!

Proton number number of protons in the nucleus of atom Nucleon number total number of protons and nucleons in the nucleus of atom Valence electron the electrons in the outermost shell Electron configuration arrangement of electron

Try this out!!!

Q1
Elements

Fill in the blanks


Proton Number 3 Nucleon Number 7 Number of Neutrons

B C D E F

6 16 17

12 19

10

40

16 18 20

Q1
Elements Proton Number 3

Answers
Nucleon Number 7 Number of Neutrons 4

B C D E F

6 9 16 17 20

12 19 32 35 40

6 10 16 18 20

Q2
Elements Number of Neutron

Fill in the blanks


Nucleon Number Number of electrons Electron Configuration

A B C D E F

5 8 14 20

9 2.6 19 32 40 16 2.7 2.8.3

Q2
Elements Number of Neutron

Answers
Nucleon Number Number of electrons Electron Configuration

A B C D E F

5 8 10 14 16 20

9 16 19 27 32 40

4 8 9 13 16 20

2.2 2.6 2.7 2.8.3 2.8.6 2.8.8.2

2.3 ISOTOPES

What is isotopes?
Isotopes is just like twins, same genetic but different of DNA
atoms of the same element with same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Examples of Isotopes
Take a look at Wikipedia isotopes table Hydrogen :
1 1

2 1

3 1

Graphite :
Oxygen :

12 6 16 8

13
6

C
O

14 6

C O

17 8

18 8

Isotopes of Hydrogen
Hydrogen :
1 1

H
2 1

3 1

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron No of ee- configuration Valence e16

17

18 8

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
8

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
8

O
8

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16

O
16

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16

16

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16

16

16

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16 2.8.6

16

16

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16 2.8.6

16 2.8.6

16

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16 2.8.6

16 2.8.6

16 2.8.6

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16 2.8.6 6

16 2.8.6

16 2.8.6

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16 2.8.6 6

16 2.8.6 6

16 2.8.6

Properties of isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
No of proton No of neutron
16

17

18 8

O
16 17

O
16 18

16 16

No of ee- configuration Valence e-

16 2.8.6 6

16 2.8.6 6

16 2.8.6 6

Conclusion:
Number of valence electron are same The chemical properties also same The physical properties might be same, might be different

Try this out!!!

Q3. Answer the structure questions


Elements Proton Number Nucleon Number

P Q R S T U

3 9 16 15 16 18

7 19 32 31 33 40

a) A: b) A: c) A: d) A: e) A:

What means proton number? The numbers of proton in the nucleus of an atom What means nucleon number? The numbers of proton & neutron in the nucleus of an atom Write the electron arrangement for element Q. 2.7 How many valence electrons that element Q has? 7 How many electron shells that element Q has? two

f) Which pair of elements are isotopes? Explain. A: R & T. Because they have same proton number but different nucleon number g) Is R&T have same chemical properties? Why? U A: Yes. Because they have same valence electron h) How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are there in atom S? A: 15 protons, 16 neutrons and 15 electrons
40 18

i) Write the symbol to represent atom U. A: 40


18