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Sonianto kuddi

Dewa Komang
Dewa Made
Barto M. Useng
Background
Adult stem cells are defined as
undifferentiated cells located in specialized
tissues that have the potential to self renew
indefinitely and also have the ability to
differentiate into more specialized cell types.
The best-characterized adult stem cells are
hematopoietic stem cells that reside in the
bone marrow.
Aim
To know how to cure leukemia
To know the positive and negative of this
method
To know the future potential of regarding the
development of stem cell.
What is stem cell?
A stem cell is a very special cell that can get
orders to change into different kinds of cells. 
They can change into many kinds of cells such
as muscle, blood (bone marrow), nervous
tissue, bone,  cartilage and skin cell.
(http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/mcgo4s0/public_html/t5/cellrepair.html)
What is leukemia?
A cancer of white blood cells, or
leukocytes
White blood cells help fight infection.

Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues


throughout the body.

Platelets help form blood clots that


control bleeding.
Leukemia cells

In people with leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white


blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells. At first, leukemia
cells function almost normally. In time, they may crowd out normal
white blood cells, red blood cell and platelets. This makes it hard for
blood to do its work.
What is Bone Marrow?
It the spongy material found in the center of
large bones.
Produces special parent cells (tem cells),
produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and
platelets.
Functions:
Red blood cells carry oxygen through the body
White blood cells fight off infection
Platelets help the blood to clot
Transplants(Leukemia)
?
A bone marrow transplant is
a procedure for replacing
blood-forming cells in the
bone marrow that have
been destroyed by
chemotherapy with healthy
bone marrow, while
peripheral blood stem cell
transplantation is a method
of replacing blood-forming
cells destroyed by cancer
treatment.
There are three categories of bone
marrow and peripheral blood stem
cell transplantation:
A. Autologous
B. Allogeneic
C. Syngeneic
Allogeneic
 Receive stem cells or bone marrow matched
donor; can be a sibling or family member, or
an unrelated donor.
Success depends to a large extent on how
well the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of
the donor's bone marrow match the HLA of
the patient's marrow.
Stem cells are blood-forming cells of the bone
marrow; continuously divide to form the new
blood cells that populate the arteries and
veins.
The SCT procedure enables physicians to give
chemotherapy and radiotherapy in doses that
are strong enough to eliminate leukemia cells.
Autologous
transplant?
Patient's own bone marrow or peripheral
blood stem cells are removed and reserved.
The patient then receives high doses of
chemotherapy or radiation to destroy any
cancer cells.
Afterward, the patient receives back his or her
own blood cells through a transfusion. These
cells find their way to the bone marrow and
begin to produce a new population of blood
cells.
Through this process, the patient’s bone
After entering the bloodstream, the
transplanted cells travel to the bone marrow,
produce new white blood cells, red blood cells
and platelets. called "engraftment”.
 A stem cell transplant can replace the
dysfunctional marrow with new functioning
stem cells. These stem cells then travel from
the bloodstream to the marrow where ideally,
they begin to work properly and produce
healthy working blood cells.
Syngeneic: receive stem cells or bone marrow
from an identical twin donor.
Discussion (Positive
roles)
To treat patient disease – leukemia.
In adult tissues, such as bone marrow,
muscle, and brain, discrete populations of
adult stem cells generate replacements for
cells that are lost through normal wear and
tear, injury, or disease.
It will help scientists to learn about human
growth and cell development.
Negative roles (risk)
Damage to organs or blood vessels
Graft versus host disease
Death (low immune system)
Unable to find a match.
Long term effects of such an interference with
nature could materialize.
Risks would be quite reduced because patients’ bodies
would not reject their own cells.
Future potential
More effective,
Reduce the invasiveness and the risk to
patients
Advanced technology
Vaccine (reduce risk).
Conclusion
There are three categories of bone marrow and
peripheral blood stem cell transplantation :
Autologous , Allogeneic , Syngeneic.
Treating leukemia with stem cells it is much
better than giving drugs.
Adult stem cells are more specialized than
embryonic stem cells.
Treating leukemia with stem cells have many
risks and advantages.
Referenc
es
 University of maryland Marlene and Steward: Greenebaum
Cancer Center. Retrieved February 13, 2009 from:
http://www.umgcc.org/blood_marrow_program/class_basics.
htm#b
 Majlis Kanser Nasional (MAKNA), Bone Marrow Transplant
(BMT) Unit in IKM-HUKM. Malaysia. Retrieved February 13,
2009 from: http://www.makna.org.my/bonemarrow.asp
 Medicine net. (2009). What is leukemia. Retrieved February
13, 2009 from:
http://www.medicinenet.com/leukimia/article.htm#1whatis
 http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page.adp?item_id=5965
 http://www.oncologychannel.com/leukemias/treatment.shtml
 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041129112109.ht
 http://www.wral.com/lifestyles/healthteam/story/3412779/
 http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/scresearch
 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-
disadvantages-of-stem-cell-research.htm