Anda di halaman 1dari 19

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Consumer Behaviour (CB) studies how individuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires

Activities people engage in when


Selecting Purchasing and Using

products to satisfy their needs and actions Physical action plus mental and emotional processes

7 Os FRAMEWORK OF CONSUMER RESEARCH


OCCUPANTS OBJECTS OBJECTIVES ORGANIZATIONS OPERATIONS OCCASIONS OUTLETS
4

Decision Making Process

Environmental Forces

Individual Factors

Purchase Decision

MARKETING STIMULI Product Price Place Promotion

OTHER STIMULI Economic Technological Political Cultural

BUYERS CHARACTERISTICS Cultural Social Personal Psychological

BUYERS DECISION PROCESS


Problem recognition Information search Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Postpurchase behaviour

BUYERS DECISIONS
Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount
6

CULTURAL FACTORS

CULTURE
(a culture consists of values, beliefs & customary behaviours learned & shared by the members of a particular society) Learned Marketers identify cultural shifts. E.g. shift towards health & fitness; use of cosmetics by men; informality (casual clothes & simple home furnishings)

SUBCULTURE
Religious (e.g. Hindu), geographic (e.g. Bengali)

SOCIAL CLASS
Relatively permanent & ordered divisions of society whose members share similar values, interests, behaviours. Combination of occupation, income, education, wealth etc. SEC Classification. Similar buying 7 behaviour.

SOCIAL FACTORS
REFERENCE GROUPS
And avoidance groups Use word-of-mouth mktg & buzz mktg Identify opinion leaders Use social networking site (ads, virtual purchase, blogs etc.)

FAMILY
(orientation, procreation)

SOCIAL ROLE AND STATUS


8

PERSONAL FACTORS AGE & STAGE IN LIFE CYCLE OCCUPATION & ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES LIFE STYLE
A persons pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities, interests & opinions Consumers dont buy a product but a lifestyle; BMW sells not just a convertible but a convertible lifestyle. Psychographics the science of measuring & categorizing consumer lifestyles

PERSONALITY & SELF CONCEPT


Personality is the distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent & enduring responses to environment Consumers are likely to choose those brands where the brand personality matches their own personality 9 Actual, Ideal & Others self-concept

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
MOTIVATION
A need that is sufficiently pressing to drive a person to act

PERCEPTION
The process by which an individual selects, organizes & interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world Selective attention, selective distortion, selective retention

LEARNING
Involves changes in behaviour due to experience

BELIEFS & ATTITUDES


Belief a descriptive thought that a person holds about something (due to knowledge, opinion or faith) Attitude a persons enduring (un)favourable evaluations, emotional feelings & action tendencies towards some object / idea
10

BUYING ROLES
INITIATOR
Who first suggest the idea of buying the product or service

INFLUENCER
Whose view or advice influences the decision

DECIDER
Who decides on any component of a buying decision whether to buy, what to buy, how to buy, where to buy

BUYER
Who makes the actual purchase

USER
Who consumers or uses the product or service
11

BUYING BEHAVIOUR Involvement


the subjective important of the purchase and is a function of financial and functional importance, perceived risk, emotional value and sign value.

Habit formation.
Alternatively many decisions can be based on habit, habit formation being a prerequisite of brand loyalty.

Depending on the degree of involvement and whether a habit has been formed or not, four types of buying decision emerge
12

BUYING BEHAVIOUR
HIGH LOW INVOLVEMENT INVOLVEMENT
SIGNIFICANT BRAND COMPLEX BB DIFFERENCES NO SIGNIFICANT DISSONANCE BRAND REDUCING BB DIFFERENCES

VARIETY SEEKING BB

HABITUAL BB
13

STAGES OF BUYING DECISION PROCESS


PROBLEM RECOGNITION
INFORMATION SEARCH EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES PURCHASE DECISION POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOUR
14

TYPES OF CONSUMERS
Nonconsumer Potential consumer
Unaware of need Low intensity of present need Lack of information about available products Purchase from competitors Lack of current means to purchase

Realized consumer
15

Personal and Organizational consumer Consumption process


Determine individual / group wants

Seek out and purchase product / service


Employ product / service to derive benefits

Commonalities and Diversities


16

Number of adopters
Innovators

Early adopters

Time of adoption of innovation Early majority Late majority Laggards


17

CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS

CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS


STAGES
Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption

18

Factors
People differ in readiness to try new product Personal influence Organizations differ in readiness to adopt innovation
Organizations environment Organization itself

Characteristics of the innovation


Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, communicability, cost, risk, scientific credibility, social approval
19