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CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CELL

Prepared by, Ms.Raja

ELEMENTS IN CELL
Common elements oxygen, carbon, hydrogen & nitrogen Other elements sulphur, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, sodium & iron Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus Combined each other to form chemical
compounds

- Example 1. Chemical compounds - carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid & water 2. sulphur, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, sodium & iron - Exists as ions in cell

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
ORGANIC COMPOUND INORGANIC COMPOUND

Chemical compounds that contain the element carbon


Eg: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid

Chemical compounds that do not contain element carbon

Eg: water

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Provide energy during respiration

Build cell walls in plant cells

CARBOHYDRATES
Form external skeletons of insects Stored food in the form of glycogen in liver & muscles, as starch in plant cells

Form phospholipid bilayer

Protects organs & its heat insulator Stored product adipose tissue in animals & fats or oils in seeds

Source of energy

LIPIDS

Synthesise steroid hormones including sex hormones

Solvent for vitamin A,D,E,K Produce liver bile digestion of fats

Form str of cell eg: cytoplasm

Form connective tissue eg: tendons, ligaments, muscle

Form protein molecules in plasma membrane


Build up muscles for movement

Synthesise antibodies

Proteins

Form haemoglobin Produce new cells

Synthesise enzymes & hormones to control chemical processes

RNA

Nucleic acid

DNA

Nucleic acids
Carry genetic information Determine traits

control all the core activities

Direct protein synthesis

Major component of protoplasm

Transport medium
Allows chemical changes

Solvent to dissolve respiration gases & allow diffusion

water

As medium for biochemical reactions To provide support esp non-woody plants (cells are turgid)

Carbohydrates carbon, hydrogen & oxygen


CARBOHYDRATE

types

MONOSACCHARIDE

DISACCHARIDE

POLYSACCHARIDE

MONOSACCHARIDES
Basic building blocks of carbohydrates Simple sugars glucose, fructose, galactose Reducing sugars Detected by using Benedicts test Color changes blue to green, yellow, orange & finally brick red precipitate is produced

DISACCHARIDES
Complex sugars Consists of two monosaccharides by condensation & a water molecule produced
Monosaccharide + monosaccharide
condensation

Disaccharide + water

Eg: Maltose, sucrose, lactose Reducing sugars except sucrose

Glucose + glucose
Glucose + fructose Glucose + galactose

Maltose + water
sucrose + water lactose + water

condensation
Maltose + water sucrose + water Glucose + glucose Glucose + fructose

lactose + water

Glucose + galactose

hydrolysis

POLYSACCHARIDE
Large complex sugars Consists of many monosaccharides joined together by condensation form long chains of simple sugars called polymers Eg: starch, glycogen, cellulose

Starch produced by plants as a form of food storage


Glycogen formed by animals as a means of storing glucose Cellulose structural polysaccharide in plant cell