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Amity School of Business

BUSINESS MATHEMATICS & STATISTICS

BBA (M&S and FBM)

Module I

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INTRODUCTION
Mathematics is an important subject and knowledge of it enhances a person's reasoning, problem-solving skills, and in general, the ability to think. Hence it is important for understanding almost every subject whether science and technology, medicine, the economy, or business and finance. Mathematical tools such as the theory of chaos are used to mapping market trends and forecasting of the same.

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Statistics and probability which are branches of mathematics are used in everyday business and economics. Mathematics also form an important part of accounting, and many accountancy companies prefer graduates with joint degrees with mathematics rather than just an accountancy qualification.

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Financial Mathematics and Business Mathematics form two important branches of mathematics in today's world and these are direct application of mathematics to business and economics. Examples of applied math's such as probability theory and management science, such as queuing theory, timeseries analysis, linear programming all are vital math's for business.

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COORDINATE GEOMETRY
IS Branch of geometry in which two real numbers called coordinates are used to indicate the position of a point in a plane

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COORDINATES
An ordered pair of numbers that give the location of a point on the plane. e.g.: (3,4)
The first number is always x and the second point is always y

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COORDINATE PLANE
It describes a two-dimensional plane in terms of two perpendicular axes: x and y The x-axis indicates the horizontal direction while the y-axis indicates the vertical direction of the plane. In the coordinate plane, points are indicated by their positions along the x and yaxes

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COORDINATE POINT
The first number is always the x
and second number is always the y e.g. ( x, y)

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QUESTIONS
Plot coordinates: (3,3), (2,0), (0,-5) in different coordinate planes Plot coordinates (1,4) and (5,6) in the same plane.

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In the coordinate plane, we can use the pythagorean theorem to find the distance between two points. The distance between the two points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) is :

d ( x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 )
2

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QUESTIONS
Find the distance between the following pair of points: (i) (0, 0) , (p, q) (ii) (9, -1) , (-2,10) (iii) (2/3, -1/2) , ( -1/3, -1/2 ) (iv) at12 ,2at1 ; at2 2 ,2at2

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(v) If the point (a,3) is at a distance of 5 unit from (2, a) , find a? (vi) What will be the value of x if the distance between (x, -4) and (-8, 2) be 10?

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(i) If the distance between the points (a,-5) and (2, a) is 13, find a?

(ii) Show that the points (1,-1) , (-1, 1) and (-3, -3) are the vertices of equilateral triangle.

STRAIGHT LINE

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The slope of the line is the number that measures its steepness usually denoted by the letter m. It is the change in y for a unit change in x. e.g., In the given figure , for a unit change in x, there is a rise of in y. So, slope=1/2 The slope is calculated from knowing any two distinct points on the line, (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) y 2 y1 x 2 x1

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Example : Find the slope of a line passing through the points (2 , 3) and (0 , -1) (-2 , 4) and (-2 , 6)

(5 , 2) and (-7 , 2)

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Y- INTERCEPT
The y- intercept is where the line intercepts (meets) the y-axis. e.g., In the above diagram, the line intercepts the yaxis at (0,1). And so Its y-intercept is equals to 1.

EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE

A. Slope-Intercept Form B. Slope-Point Form

C. Two-Point Form
D. General Form

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SPECIAL EQUATIONS
(1) Equation of X-Axis is Y=0 (2) Equation of Y-Axis is X=0 (3) Equation of a line parallel to X-Axis is Y=k ( Here k is a constant) (4) Equation of a line parallel to Y-Axis is X=k (Here also k is a constant)

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SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM
Equation of straight line in slope intercept form is given by y = mx + c
(x, y) are coordinate of any point on the line, m is the slope of the line and c is the intercept or This tells us that the slope of the line is m and the y- intercept of the line is c

e.g., The line y = 2x + 4 has slope m = 2 and y-intercept c = 4

Q Find the equation of a straight line making an angle of 120 degree with the x-axis and cutting the y-axis at a distance 3 below the origin.

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Q Find the equation of a straight line passing through the origin and making with the x-axis an angle of : (i) 45 degree (ii) 60 degree (iii) 90 degree Q Find the equation of a straight line cutting of an intercept 2 from the positive direction of the axis of y and inclined at 45 degree to the x-axis.

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SLOPE-POINT FORM
The equation of a straight line having a slope m and passing through the point (x1, y1 ) is, y-y1 = m ( x x1)

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Example; Find the equation of the straight line that has slope m = 4 and passes through the point (1, 6) Solution: m = 4, x1 = 1, and y1 = 6 plug these values into the point-slope form, and solve for y

y y1 = m (x x1) y (6) = (4)(x (1))

y + 6 = 4(x + 1)
y + 6 = 4x + 4 y = 4x + 4 6

y = 4x 2

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QUESTIONS
1. Find the Equation of a line passing through the point A( 2, 3) and having slope m = -1 2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis and at a distance of (i) 5 units to the right (ii) 6 units to the left
3. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis and passing through (i) (-3, -2) (ii) (-8, 5)

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TWO-POINT FORM
The equation of a straight line passing through two points ( x1, y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) is given by,

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QUESTIONS
1. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2 , 0) and (3 , 3) 2. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (0 , -1) and (3 , 5) 3. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the points (a , b) and (a+b , a-b) 4. Find the equation of the straight line passing 2 2 through the points (at1 ,2at1 ) and (at2 ,2at2 )

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GENERAL FORM
It should be noted that all the different standard forms of the equation of a straight line can be reduced to the form Ax+By+C = 0 (Its slope = -(A/B)) where A, B and C are constants with A and B not both zero This equation is known as the General Form of a straight line.

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