Anda di halaman 1dari 36

MODULE II

Topics
1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH TWO UNKNOWNS 2. SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIOS WITH THREE UNKNOWNS 3. QUADRATIC EQUATION AND SOLUTION 4. NATURE OF ROOTS IN QUADRATIC EQUATION 5. INEQUALITY WITH GRAPHS 6. INDICES

7.SURDS
8. LOGARITHM

Linear Equation
A linear equation with two unknowns is given by ax + by + c = 0. Where a,b,c are real numbers

Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns


Pair of Linear Equations:
a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0
Ex: 2x+4y+6=0 And x+5y+8=0

Geometrical Forms
Pair of Equations will: Intersect Parallel
No Solution Unique Solution

Coincide
Infinitely Many Solutions

Methods to Solve Linear Equation Algebraically


Substitution Method Elimination Method Cross Multiplication Method

1) Substitution method:
Eg:- Solve 7x 15y = 2 x + 2y = 3 Step(i) We pick either of the equation and write one variable in terms of other. Let us consider 2nd equation x + 2y = 3 therefore x = 3 2y

Step (ii) Substitute the value of x in 1st equation. 7(3 2y) 15y =2 21 14y -15 y = 2 29y =19 y = 19/29.

Step (iii) Substitute y = 19/29 in any of the equations we get, x = 49/29

2. Elimination Method
This is done by making the coefficient of either x or y same. 9x-4y=2000 7x-3y=2000 (Ans: x=2000, y=4000)

3) Cross multiplication method:


If the two equations are : a1 x b1 y c1 0 a2 x b2 y c2 0 b1c2 b2 c1 Then, x a1b2 a2b1 c1a2 c2 a1 and y a1b2 a2b1

Q) Solve by cross multiplication: 2x+3y-46=0 3x+5y-74=0 Ans:(x=8,y=10)

Questions(Substitution method)
Solve: (i) x + y = 14 and x y = 4(Ans: x=9,y=4) (ii) s t =3 and s/3 + t/2 = 6 (Ans: t=6,s=9) (iii) 3x/2 5y/3 = -2 and x/3 + y/2 =13/6 (x=2,y=3) (iv) Solve 2x + 3y = 11 and 2x 4y = -24 and hence find the value of m for which y = mx + 3.(x=-2,y=5,m=-1)

Questions(Elimination method)
Solve: (i)x + y = 5 and 2x 3y = 4(Ans:19/5,6/5) (ii)3x + 4y = 2 and 2x 2y =2 (Ans: 6/7,-1/7) (iii)3x 5y 4 = 0 and 9x = 2y + 7 (iv)x/2 + 2y/3 = -1 and x y/3 = 3

Questions(Cross multiplication method)


Solve: (i)x 3y 3 = 0 and 3x 9y 2 = 0 (ii)2x + y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 8 (iii)3x 5y = 20 and 6x 10y = 40 (iv)x 3y 7 = 0 and 3x 3y = 15

Word Problems
Q) The difference between two numbers is 26 and one number is 3 times the other. Find them. (Ans: 13,39)

Q) The coach of a cricket team buys 7 bats and 6 balls for Rs. 3800. Later he buys 3 bats and 5 balls for Rs. 1750. Find the cost of each ball and each bat. (Ans: Rs. 500 and Rs. 50)

Q) A fraction becomes 9/11, if 2 is added to both the numerator and denominator. If 3 is added to both the numerator and the denominator it becomes 5/6. Find the fraction. (Ans: 7/9)

Q) Five years hence, the age of Jacob will be three times that of his son. Five years ago, Jacobs age was 7 times that of his son. What are their present ages? (Ans: 40 years and 10 years)

Quadratic Equation
In mathematics a quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second degree.The general form is
ax bx c 0 where, x represents a variable and a, b, c represents constants with a0. The constants a, b, c are called respectively the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant term.
2

Solution of Quadratic Equation


There are always two solutions for a quadratic equation. The solution of the quadratic equation are called as ROOTS of the equation.

Methods
Two methods to solve a quadratic Equation: By factoring (works sometimes) By Quadratic Formula (always works)

Factoring

This method is used where quadratic equation can be easily resolved into linear factors. For example:

Solve 4 x 2 25 We can write the aboveeq n as (2 x) 2 (5) 2 0 (2 x 5) ( 2 x 5) 0 either ( 2 x 5) 0 or ( 2 x 5) 0 5 x 2 or 5 x 2

Factoring
Example 2) Solve:

x2 6x 8 0 We can solvethe abovequadratic eq by splitting the middleterm. x2 4x 2x 8 0 x( x 4) 2( x 4) 0 ( x 2) ( x 4) 0 x 2 or x 4


n

Questions
1.Solve: x 3x 4
2

2. Solve:

x b a b b x b a

(Ans: x=a,x=b/a)

3. Solve: (Ans: x=3/2,x=-3/2)

9x 2 4x2 7 6x 1 2 3 4x 3 2

2. By Quadratic Formula

This method works all the time Put the equation in standard form: Determine the values of a,b,c

ax bx c 0
2

The solution is given by:

b b 2 4ac b b 2 4ac x and 2a 2a

Questions
Solve: x+9x=-8 (Ans: x=-1 and x=-8) Solve: 2x-10x+5=0 (Ans: x=(5+15)/2 and (5-15)/2)

QUESTIONS Solve the following equations:

1) 6

1 x7 4x 2 3 3 5 3 5 8 2) x2 x6 x3 x 1 2( x 1) 3) 4 x x 3 3 5 ax 2a x 3a x 4) a 2a 3a

Solve the following equations:

1) 25 x 2 16 x x3 2) x2 5( x 11) 2( 45 2 x 2 ) 3( x 2 9) 3) 7 x2 9 x2 3 4) 3 x 2 14 x 11 0 5) x 2 ( p q ) x pq 0 x 3 10 3 x 3 x a a b 7) a x b a 8) x 2 2 3 x 1 0 6) 9) x 2 ( 3 3) x ( 3 2) 0

Special Cases
1.
x 1 x

1 x x

21 6
a 1 a 1

Ans: x=4/13 and x=9/13

2.

x 12 a x x 12 a x

Ans: x=3a,x=-4a

3.

6 6 6 ....

Ans: x=3,x=-2

4.

2 x 1 3x 4 7

Ans: x=4,x=480

Solve the following equations:

1) 1 5 x 1 3x 2 2) 3x 10 9 x 7 9

Roots of Quadratic Equations

The general quadratic equation is :

ax 2 bx c 0 The two roots of the quadratic equation are givenby : b b 2 4ac b b 2 4ac x and 2a 2a where, the exp ression b 2 4ac is called discri min ant of the equation and is denoted by D. So, the roots of the quadratic equation are : b D b D x and 2a 2a

Nature of the Roots


Since the roots of the quadratic equation are given by:

b b 2 4ac b b 2 4ac x and 2a 2a


The nature of the roots depends on the numerical value of We obtain the following results: 1. If D>0, both the roots are unequal. 2. If D=0, both the roots are real and equal.
b2 4ac

3. If D<0, then both the roots are complex and unequal.

Questions
Find the nature of the roots: i) x+2x+3=0 ii) Find what values of m will the equation (m+1)x+2(m+3)x+(2m+3)=0 will have equal roots. (Ans: m=3,m=-2)

Sum and Product of the roots of quadratic equations: Let,

Let and be the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 bx c 0. Sum of the roots are : b coefficien of x t sum of the roots a coefficien of x 2 t c cons tan t term product of the roots a coefficien of x 2 t

Questions
1) If , are the roots of 2 x 2 3 x 7 0, find the valuesof (i ) 2 2 (ii) 3 3 (iii) 4 4 2) If , are the roots of x 2 2 x 3 0, formthe quadratic equation whose roots are :

(i ) 3, 3 (ii) 2 3 ,3 2 (iii) , and 1 1 (iv) , 1 1

Questions on nature of roots

1) Find k , if (i ) the roots of 2 x 2 3 x k 0 are equal. (ii) one of the roots of equation x 2 4 x k 0 is 2(1 3 ) (iii) one of the roots of equation x 2 6 x k 0 is 3 i 2 (iv) one root of the equation x 2 6 x k 0 is double the other.
Ans:K=8