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Functional Intervention Training Day 1

Candace Gann, MS, BSS Candace@email.arizona.edu

Agenda
Basics of behavior Functional Behavior Assessment
Indirect assessments Direct observations Function Matrix

Homework
Preview Day 2

Basics of Behavior

The Basics
Behavior is learned
Do not assume children know your rules, expectations, or social skills Every social interaction you or peers have with a child teaches him or her something

The Basics
Behavior communicates need
Children engage in behavior(s) to get something or avoid something Need is determined by observing what happens prior to and immediately after a behavior

What the child is trying to get or avoid is a reinforcer


A reinforcer is a consequence that maintains a behavior

The Basics
Behavior has two functions
Gaining (positive reinforcement) Avoiding (negative reinforcement)

There are three types of reinforcers


Attention Tangibles/activities Sensory stimulation

The Basics
Positive Reinforcement Attention
In the classroom, Peter argues with the teachers and peers laugh.

Negative Reinforcement Attention


During group games on the playground, Reneta argues with peers and then does not have to interact with them.

On the playground, Sara dances and takes off clothing and peers come over to her.
During circle time, Terrance punches peers, they turn to him, and he talks with them.

During classroom group discussions, Latitia complains of illnesses and the teacher stops asking her questions.
After arriving early and waiting in the lunchroom with peers for school to start, Martin fights with peers to stop them from teasing him.

The Basics
Positive Reinforcement Tangibles/Activities
During free play, Mica hits peers and takes their toys. In the lunchroom, Abby curses at peers and they give her part of their lunch. In the classroom, Karen tantrums until the teacher gives her what she asks for.

Negative Reinforcement Tangibles/Activities


In social studies class, Jaques argues with the teacher until she lets him out of work. During PE, Baylee stays in the locker room and misses most of class. After being dismissed for the bus, Darren stops to talk with peers and staff to avoid riding the bus.

The Basics
Positive Reinforcement Sensory Stimulation
During transitions between classes, Marcus leaves campus to smoke and is tardy to class. During reading class, Cole screams until the teacher gives him the weighted blanket.

Negative Reinforcement Sensory Stimulation


In the lunchroom, Todd leaves before being dismissed to escape from the noise. In the classroom, Juliet sits under the table to escape from the flickering of the florescent light.

Functional Behavior Assessment


What is it and how do we do it?

Functional Behavior Assessment


Conducting an FBA identifies two things
The situations or circumstances in which a student engages in a particular problem behavior The consequences that are reinforcing the behavior and therefore continuing that behavior

Functional Behavior Assessment


There are 4 steps to conducting an FBA
Identify the problem Conduct interviews Directly observe the child Determine function

Identify the Problem


Behaviors are actions or events that can be observed, measured, and repeated
They can be seen, counted, and done again

Identify the Problem


Which of the following are behaviors?
Walking Reading

Redefine the nonbehaviors


Depressed Controlling Daydreaming Losing weight

Depressed
Controlling Daydreaming Losing weight

Identify the Problem


Define the target behavior
The target behavior is the behavior we choose to assess and design intervention for Includes a general descriptor for the behavior and a series of specific observable, measurable, and repeatable examples
The general descriptor is a word or short phrase that makes it easy to communicate about the target behavior with others

Identify the Problem


Steps to defining the target behavior:
Gather information about the problem or problems from VARIOUS sources If there are multiple examples of the target behavior, develop a general descriptor that encompasses the range of specific examples Review the definition to ensure it describes an observable, measurable, and repeatable behavior

Identify the Problem


Destruction of property
The target behavior is destruction of property which includes pushing books to the floor, tearing up worksheets, and breaking pencils.

Off-task
The target behavior is offtask which includes leaving assigned area, talking to peers, and playing with items not related to assigned tasks.

Identify the Problem


Lets practice! Identify a General Descriptor Lets Practice! Identify Behaviors

Cursing at staff, turning away from staff when spoken to, walking away from staff Gazing out the window and staring into space

Aggression toward staff Self-stimulation Disruptive

Conduct Interviews
Goals of functional assessment interviews
Solidify your choice of target behavior Obtain information about the circumstances that set the stage for target behavior (antecedents) Obtain information about circumstances that follow the target behavior that influence the extent to which it will recur (consequences)

Interviews are typically conducted with teachers, paraprofessionals, and other school site personnel Students are also able to provide valuable information so they should also be considered for interviews An interview should last from 30 to 45 minutes

Conduct Interviews
The Preliminary Functional Assessment Survey
It is imperative that the interview actually be conducted with the staff member or parent rather than having him or her fill it out on their own

Conduct Interviews

Conduct Interviews

Conduct Interviews
Student-Assisted Functional Assessment Interview
This allows you to gain information from the students perspective Contains four sections designed to identify
Antecedents that prompt target behavior Nature of the target behavior Consequences that increase or decrease the behavior Reinforcers for the student

Conduct Interviews

Conduct Interviews

Conduct Interviews
Other possible tools are rating scales Examples of rating scales are
Motivation Assessment Scale Problem Behavior Questionnaire

Direct Observation
Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Recording When we observe behavior, we observe it in relation to two things
The context in which it occurs (antecedent) Events that follow it and affect its future occurrence (consequence)

Simply what is going on when the behavior occurs and what happens afterwards that may continue that behavior

Direct Observations
Determine when the best time to observe is during initial interviews
Begin with when the behaviors are most problematic and most likely to occur
Is there any circumstance under which the behavior always occurs?
When do you think you have the most problems with ___ in school?

Is there any circumstance under which the behavior does not occur?
When do you think you have the least problems with ___ in school?

Direct Observations
How long and often you observe depends on how much information you need
I like to have a minimum of 20 occurrences of the behavior to determine function If you still cant get a solid function, you may need more behaviors

How to observe
Sit where you can observe clearly so you can record accurately Sit where you have as little influence as possible on the natural setting You may need to go to the classroom several times so the students get used to you being there and everything runs naturally

Check with the teacher to find out if what you observed was typical

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Existing conditions when a behavior occurs; what is happening before the behavior
1 2
Antecedent Behavior Consequence Function

Teacher hands out quiz Teacher tells students to pass in quiz Teacher asks, Where is your quiz?

Writing a letter to another student Puts head on desk

Teacher rolls eyes and walks away

Escape from quiz (NR) Escape from handing in quiz (NR)

Behavior
What the student is doing

Consequence
Event that follows the behavior; what the student gets from the behavior (punishment, reinforcement)

Student replies, I just want to do this, and continues writing his letter

Teacher tells him she cant give him any points and takes the blank quiz

Escape from quiz (NR)

Direct Observation
Antecedent 1 2
Math Class
T passing out assignment; students sitting at desks
T going over examples on the board

Behavior
Marco has his head down on the desk looking away from the teacher
M curls over and puts his head back on the desk

Consequence
T asks Marco to sit up

Function
Positive reinforcement attention

T asks Marco to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

Another child is reiterating example from the board to her classmates


Other children working on their assignment (order of operations worksheet). T perusing the classroom 40 minutes into the class; other students continue to work

M puts his head down on the desk

T motions to paraeducator to sit next to M and make him sit up


T instructs M to begin assignment or he will receive a behavior incident report T writes behavior incident report; tells paraeducator to escort M to Time-Out

Positive reinforcement attention

M is leaning against the window looking outside

Positive reinforcement attention

M stops work and puts his head back on the desk

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent 1 2
Math Class
T passing out assignment; students sitting at desks
T going over examples on the board

Behavior
Marco has his head down on the desk looking away from the teacher
M curls over and puts his head back on the desk

Consequence
T asks Marco to sit up

Function
Positive reinforcement attention

T asks Marco to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

Another child is reiterating example from the board to her classmates


Other children working on their assignment (order of operations worksheet). T perusing the classroom 40 minutes into the class; other students continue to work

M puts his head down on the desk

T motions to paraeducator to sit next to M and make him sit up


T instructs M to begin assignment or he will receive a behavior incident report T writes behavior incident report; tells paraeducator to escort M to Time-Out

Positive reinforcement attention

M is leaning against the window looking outside

Positive reinforcement attention

M stops work and puts his head back on the desk

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent 1 2
Math Class
T passing out assignment; students sitting at desks
T going over examples on the board

Behavior
Marco has his head down on the desk looking away from the teacher
M curls over and puts his head back on the desk

Consequence
T asks Marco to sit up

Function
Positive reinforcement attention

T asks Marco to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

Another child is reiterating example from the board to her classmates


Other children working on their assignment (order of operations worksheet). T perusing the classroom 40 minutes into the class; other students continue to work

M puts his head down on the desk

T motions to paraeducator to sit next to M and make him sit up


T instructs M to begin assignment or he will receive a behavior incident report T writes behavior incident report; tells paraeducator to escort M to Time-Out

Positive reinforcement attention

M is leaning against the window looking outside

Positive reinforcement attention

M stops work and puts his head back on the desk

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent 1 2
Math Class
T passing out assignment; students sitting at desks
T going over examples on the board

Behavior
Marco has his head down on the desk looking away from the teacher
M curls over and puts his head back on the desk

Consequence
T asks Marco to sit up

Function
Positive reinforcement attention

T asks Marco to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

Another child is reiterating example from the board to her classmates


Other children working on their assignment (order of operations worksheet). T perusing the classroom 40 minutes into the class; other students continue to work

M puts his head down on the desk

T motions to paraeducator to sit next to M and make him sit up


T instructs M to begin assignment or he will receive a behavior incident report T writes behavior incident report; tells paraeducator to escort M to Time-Out

Positive reinforcement attention

M is leaning against the window looking outside

Positive reinforcement attention

M stops work and puts his head back on the desk

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent 1 2
Math Class
T passing out assignment; students sitting at desks
T going over examples on the board

Behavior
Marco has his head down on the desk looking away from the teacher
M curls over and puts his head back on the desk

Consequence
T asks Marco to sit up

Function
Positive reinforcement attention

T asks Marco to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

Another child is reiterating example from the board to her classmates


Other children working on their assignment (order of operations worksheet). T perusing the classroom 40 minutes into the class; other students continue to work

M puts his head down on the desk

T motions to paraeducator to sit next to M and make him sit up


T instructs M to begin assignment or he will receive a behavior incident report T writes behavior incident report; tells paraeducator to escort M to Time-Out

Positive reinforcement attention

M is leaning against the window looking outside

Positive reinforcement attention

M stops work and puts his head back on the desk

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent 1 2
Math Class
T passing out assignment; students sitting at desks
T going over examples on the board

Behavior
Marco has his head down on the desk looking away from the teacher
M curls over and puts his head back on the desk

Consequence
T asks Marco to sit up

Function
Positive reinforcement attention

T asks Marco to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

Another child is reiterating example from the board to her classmates


Other children working on their assignment (order of operations worksheet). T perusing the classroom 40 minutes into the class; other students continue to work

M puts his head down on the desk

T motions to paraeducator to sit next to M and make him sit up


T instructs M to begin assignment or he will receive a behavior incident report T writes behavior incident report; tells paraeducator to escort M to Time-Out

Positive reinforcement attention

M is leaning against the window looking outside

Positive reinforcement attention

M stops work and puts his head back on the desk

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Social Studies Class

Behavior
M puts his head down on the desk M puts head down on the desk ; goes to sleep M leans head on the window and looks outside

Consequence
T tells M to sit up and take notes on the video M allowed to sleep

Function
Positive reinforcement attention Negative reinforcement - activity Positive reinforcement attention

6 7 8

Class is watching a video 30 minutes later; video still showing Teacher reading another students essay

T tells M to sit up and pay attention

English Class

Teacher reviewing editing symbols with the class

M puts head down on the desk; doodles

Paraeducator tells M to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

10

Other students are editing their essays

M puts head down; goes to sleep

T writes a behavior incident report and sends M to the principal

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Social Studies Class

Behavior
M puts his head down on the desk M puts head down on the desk ; goes to sleep M leans head on the window and looks outside

Consequence
T tells M to sit up and take notes on the video M allowed to sleep

Function
Positive reinforcement attention Negative reinforcement - activity Positive reinforcement attention

6 7 8

Class is watching a video 30 minutes later; video still showing Teacher reading another students essay

T tells M to sit up and pay attention

English Class

Teacher reviewing editing symbols with the class

M puts head down on the desk; doodles

Paraeducator tells M to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

10

Other students are editing their essays

M puts head down; goes to sleep

T writes a behavior incident report and sends M to the principal

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Social Studies Class

Behavior
M puts his head down on the desk M puts head down on the desk ; goes to sleep M leans head on the window and looks outside

Consequence
T tells M to sit up and take notes on the video M allowed to sleep

Function
Positive reinforcement attention Negative reinforcement - activity Positive reinforcement attention

6 7 8

Class is watching a video 30 minutes later; video still showing Teacher reading another students essay

T tells M to sit up and pay attention

English Class

Teacher reviewing editing symbols with the class

M puts head down on the desk; doodles

Paraeducator tells M to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

10

Other students are editing their essays

M puts head down; goes to sleep

T writes a behavior incident report and sends M to the principal

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Social Studies Class

Behavior
M puts his head down on the desk M puts head down on the desk ; goes to sleep M leans head on the window and looks outside

Consequence
T tells M to sit up and take notes on the video M allowed to sleep

Function
Positive reinforcement attention Negative reinforcement - activity Positive reinforcement attention

6 7 8

Class is watching a video 30 minutes later; video still showing Teacher reading another students essay

T tells M to sit up and pay attention

English Class

Teacher reviewing editing symbols with the class

M puts head down on the desk; doodles

Paraeducator tells M to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

10

Other students are editing their essays

M puts head down; goes to sleep

T writes a behavior incident report and sends M to the principal

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Social Studies Class

Behavior
M puts his head down on the desk M puts head down on the desk ; goes to sleep M leans head on the window and looks outside

Consequence
T tells M to sit up and take notes on the video M allowed to sleep

Function
Positive reinforcement attention Negative reinforcement - activity Positive reinforcement attention

6 7 8

Class is watching a video 30 minutes later; video still showing Teacher reading another students essay

T tells M to sit up and pay attention

English Class

Teacher reviewing editing symbols with the class

M puts head down on the desk; doodles

Paraeducator tells M to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

10

Other students are editing their essays

M puts head down; goes to sleep

T writes a behavior incident report and sends M to the principal

Negative reinforcement - activity

Direct Observation
Antecedent
Social Studies Class

Behavior
M puts his head down on the desk M puts head down on the desk ; goes to sleep M leans head on the window and looks outside

Consequence
T tells M to sit up and take notes on the video M allowed to sleep

Function
Positive reinforcement attention Negative reinforcement - activity Positive reinforcement attention

6 7 8

Class is watching a video 30 minutes later; video still showing Teacher reading another students essay

T tells M to sit up and pay attention

English Class

Teacher reviewing editing symbols with the class

M puts head down on the desk; doodles

Paraeducator tells M to sit up

Positive reinforcement attention

10

Other students are editing their essays

M puts head down; goes to sleep

T writes a behavior incident report and sends M to the principal

Negative reinforcement - activity

Determine Function
Function Matrix
Grid designed to identify function Six combinations of functions and reinforcers
Positive Reinforcement (Access Something) Attention Tangibles/Activities Sensory Negative Reinforcement (Avoid Something)

Determine Function
Completing the Function Matrix
Review your interviews and rating scales
Record specific statements from interviews in corresponding cells Record rating scale results in corresponding cells

Review your ABC recording


Record specific behavior numbers in corresponding cells according to determined function

Determine Function
Positive Reinforcement (Access Something)
SI: I dont have as many problems when someone helps me. ABC: 2.7

Negative Reinforcement (Avoid Something)


TI: Well seclude him when he gets frustrated at his peers and begins yelling at them. SI: Sometimes the other kids make me mad and wont do things my way so I dont want to play with them. ABC: 3.1

Attention

ABC: 2.2, 2.5, 3.2

Tangibles/Activities

TI: He asks tons of questions when hes stuck so he wont have to do the assignment. Hell rephrase over and over until we give him the answer. SI: I dont like to do my work. If I could earn a homework pass that would be rewarding. ABC: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 3.5

Sensory

Determine Function
Lets practice in pairs!
Look at the Teacher Interview quotes. Place each numbered quote in the correct cell. Look at the Student Interview quotes. Place each numbered quote in the correct cell. Look at each of the ABC observations. Determine the function for each behavior and place in the correct cell. Code each according to Observation Number and Behavior Number (Observation 1, Behavior 3 = 1.3)

Determine Function
Positive Reinforcement (Access Something)
SI: 5 ABC: 2.7

Negative Reinforcement (Avoid Something)


TI-SPED: 1, 4 TI-SS: 2 SI: 1

Attention

ABC: 3.1
ABC: 2.2, 2.5, 3.2 TI-SPED: 3, 5 TI-SS: 1, 3

Tangibles/Activities

SI: 2, 3, 4 ABC: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 3.5 TI-SPED: 2, 6

Sensory

ABC: 2.1, 3.3, 3.4

Determine Function
Positive Reinforcement (Access Something)
SI: 5 ABC: 2.7

Negative Reinforcement (Avoid Something)


TI-SPED: 1, 4 TI-SS: 2 SI: 1

Attention

ABC: 3.1
ABC: 2.2, 2.5, 3.2 TI-SPED: 3, 5 TI-SS: 1, 3

Tangibles/Activities

SI: 2, 3, 4 ABC: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 3.5 TI-SPED: 2, 6

Sensory

ABC: 2.1, 3.3, 3.4

Homework
Conduct an FBA

Homework
Choose a subject it can be a student, coworker, spouse, or one of your own children Identify a behavior remember it must be observable, measurable, and repeatable! If it is a group of behaviors, give the group of behaviors a general descriptor then list the individual, corresponding behaviors.

Homework
Conduct a minimum of 2 interviews. You may also complete the rating scales if youd like this is optional!

Conduct ABC observations. Try to observe enough so you see the behavior 15-20 times.
Put all of your information into the Function Matrix to determine function! Bring all of your information with you to our next meeting August 17, 2012.

Looking Ahead
When we meet next

Looking Ahead
Troubleshoot your FBAs Put your information together into FBA format

Selecting a replacement behavior