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P. Sahithi 09C21A04A2

What is Cancer ? Types of Cancer Causes of Cancer Lung Cancer Blood Cancer Skin Cancer Modalities of treatment Surgery

Radiation Therapy Nuclear Medicine Chemotherapy Endocrine Therapy Biologic Therapy


Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of the cells in the body. It may occur in any part of the body. The growth of cells may be dangerous if it breaks away from the place of initial development and travels through the blood stream to strike on organ and continue with its unwarranted and uncontrollable growth.

There are more then 200 types of cancer the most common ones are lung cancer, blood cancer and skin cancer. These major types divided into further sub categories Benign cancer and Malignant cancer.

Benign cancer are harmless unlike malignant cancer. It is difficult to control the malignant cancerous cells and it needs an immediate medical attention and treatment

There are various causes of uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. Genetics may be one of such causes, though to a small percentage. Certain life styles like use of tobacco exposure to radiation, obesity or some infections may lead to cancer.

Cancer may be sound like incurable disease but it can be cured if it is detected at the early stage. By capturing early symptoms cancer can be curable.



Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer and is the major cause of the overall cancer-related deaths worldwide. The disease can be cured only if detected in the early phase. Unfortunately, in most of the cases, the cancer is detected at a late stage and thus, the chances of survival decrease considerably. Cancer of the lungs can be either primary or secondary in nature.

The primary cancer of the lungs develops mainly in the lungs and spreads to other parts of the body later. Secondary cancer of the lungs is the one in which the origin of cancer is located in areas other than the lungs and reaches the lungs at a later stage. Cancer of the lungs can be primarily of two distinct types as the small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Apart from NSCLC and SCLC, there is another type of cancer known as bronchial characinoid. This is the only type of cancer occurring in lungs, which is not directly related to smoking. The main cause of lung cancer is addiction of smoking.


Blood cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and is detected mainly in the adults. The cancerous cells develop primarily in the bone marrow or the bloodstream. Abnormal growth of the WBC is the main cause of the disease. The cancer is of three main types; multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia. These cancer cells damage the adjacent tissues and disturb the overall cell-growth mechanism.

The cells are also known as the tumor cells or the malignant cells. The Chronic leukemia further classified into
Chronic myeloid- Mainly detected in adults and affects the myeloid cells. Chronic lymphocytic- Occurring mostly in the adults above 55 years and very rarely detected in children. Acute myeloid- Detected in both children and adults. Acute lymphocytic- Most common leukemia detected in children.


The cancer is also known as skin neoplasia. The cancer is of three main types as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also known as non-melanoma cancers of the skin. Melanoma is the deadliest of the three types of cancers and causes maximum number of deaths due to cancer of the skin.

Modalities of treatment:

1-local therapy: -surgery. -radiation therapy. 2-systemic treatment: chemotherapy. Hormonal therapy. Monoclonal antibodies. Radioactive material. 3-supportive care. 4-non-conventional therapy.


Surgery can be used to diagnose, treat, or even prevent cancer in some cases. Most people with cancer will have some type of surgery. Having surgery for cancer is different for every patient, depending on the type of surgery, the type of cancer, and the patients health.

Types of surgery:

Diagnostic surgery: This helps to determine whether cells are cancerous or not, identify the type of cancer and to determine the stage of the cancer. Curative surgery: It removes the cancerous tumor or growth from the body. This type of treatment is often considered the primary treatment. Debunking surgery: Debunking surgery removes a portion, though not all, of a cancer tumor. It is used in certain situations when removing an entire tumor may cause damage to an organ or the body.

There are several specialized surgeries used during cancer treatment. Cryosurgery : this surgery technique uses extremely cold temperatures to kill cancer cells. It is used most often with
skin cancer.

surgery: this technique uses beams of light energy instead of instruments to remove very small cancers, to destroy tumors, or to activate drugs to kill cancer cells. Electro surgery: skin and oral cancer are some times treated with electro surgery. This technique uses electrical current to kill cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy:

The use of high energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Rational for radiotherapy:Purpose: To eradicate tumors at primary stage and in some cases regional lymph nodes. Principle advantage: spares normal tissue function. For example, preservation of natural voice in advance laryngeal cancer.

How radiotherapy works ??

Radiation causes damage to DNA in both normal and malignant cells. Cells unable to repair this damage by time of next division, then they die in MITOSIS.

Nuclear medicine

Radio nuclides:

For decades have been used systemically to treat malignant disorders. They are administer by specialists in nuclear medicine or radiation oncologist. Radioactive iodine in the from of 131I is effective therapy for well differentiated thyroid ca Strontium-89. Is used for the treatment of body metastasis. It is an alkaline earth element in the same family as calcium



Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals (medication) to treat disease - more specifically, it usually refers to the destruction of cancer cells. However, chemotherapy may also includes the use of antibiotics or other medications to treat any illness or infection

How does chemotherapy work ?

When our body cells are damaged or die we produce new ones to replace them. This is done in an orderly way, in a balanced way. Cancer cells do not have that orderly capacity - their reproduction (division and growth) is out of control more and more of them are produced and they start to occupy more and more space, until eventually they push out space occupied by useful cells.

Chemotherapy (chemo) drugs interfere with a cancer cell's ability to divide and reproduce. Chemo drugs may be applied into the bloodstream to attack cancer cells throughout the body, or they can be delivered directly to specific cancer sites.

Goals of chemotherapy:

Total remission - to cure the patient completely. In some cases chemotherapy alone can get rid of the cancer completely. Prevent recurrence - chemotherapy, when used to prevent the return of a cancer, is most often used after a tumor is removed surgically Slow down cancer progression - used mainly when the cancer is in its advanced stages and a cure is unlikely. Chemotherapy can slow down the advancement of the cancer. To relieve symptoms - also more frequently used for patients with advanced cancer.

What are the chemotherapeutic agent.?

Complication of Chemotherapy:
Every chemotherapeutic will have some deleterious side effect on normal tissue . E.G; Myelo suppression, nausea& vomiting, Stomatitis, and alopecia are the most frequently observed side effects.

Criteria used to describe response are:

Complete response (complete remission)is the disappearance of all detectable malignant disease. Partial response: is decrease by more than 50% in the sum of the products of the perpendicular diameters of all measurable lesions. Stable disease: no increase in size of any lesion nor the appearance of any new lesions. Progressive disease: means an increase by at least 25% in the sum of the products of the perpendicular diameters of measurable lesion or the appearance of new lesions.

Endocrine therapy:

Endocrine therapy:
Many hormonal antitumor agents are functional agonist or

antagonist of the steroid hormone family. Adrenocorticoids: Ant androgen: Estrogen: Ant estrogen: Progestin's Aromatize : Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists: Somatostatiinhibitorn analogues:


Are frequently used in combination regimen for the treatment of lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma. They function by binding to glucocorticoidspecific receptors present in lymphoid cells and initiate programmed cell death They most commonly used agent are prednisone, methyl prednisone , dexamethosone.

Ant androgens:

Flu amide Effectively blocks the binding of androgen to its receptor in the peripheral tissue . It is used in the treatment of disseminated prostate ca


Increase your life span by preventing this dreadful disease. Maintain a healthy diet.