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Operating Cisco IOS Software

2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Router Internal Components

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External Components of a 2600 Router

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ROM Functions

Contains microcode for basic functions


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Cisco Software components


Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) It is the operating system that manages the hardware platform it is working on. Configuration File It is a program file that contains commands that reflect how the router will react.

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An Overview of Cisco Device Startup

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Step in Router Initialization

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Loading the Cisco IOS Image from Flash Memory

The flash memory file is decompressed into RAM.


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Loading the Configuration

Load and execute the configuration from NVRAM.

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Computer/Terminal Console Connection

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HyperTerminal Session Properties

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Setup mode
- Permit the administrator to install a minimal configuration for a router ( appeared if no saved configuration , Ctrl-C to skip )

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Other Router Modes

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IOS Features

Support context help and abbreviations ( ? ) Support of auto complete ( Tab button ) Support syntax error detection

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Context help features

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Configuring Router Identification

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Configuring a Router Password

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Configuring Interfaces
S0/0 192.168.1.1/30 Router#config t RouterA(config)# interface serial 0/0 RouterA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 RouterA(config-if)# no shutdown RouterA(config-if)# clock rate 56000 (required for serial DCE only) RouterA(config-if)# bandwidth 64 (a value in kbps) RouterA(config-if)# exit RouterB(config)# int serial 0/1 RouterB(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.252 RouterB(config-if)# no shutdown RouterB(config-if)# exit RouterB(config)# exit Router# To know which interface is the DCE : RouterA# show controller s0/0
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S0/1 192.168.1.2/30

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monitoring and debugging


show commands are typed in both privileged EXEC and user EXEC modes #show interfaces Displays all the statistics for all the interfaces #show int s0/1 Displays statistics for interface Serial 0/1 #show ip interface brief Displays a summary about interfaces #show flash Displays info about flash memory and what IOS in it #show start Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM #show run Displays the configuration currently running in RAM #show version Displays info about the router and the IOS #show ARP Displays the ARP table of the router #show protocol Displays the global and interface specific status of any configured Layer 3 protocols #show controllers serial0/0 Displays information-specific to the interface hardware #erase nvram erase the saved configuration file #reload restart the router #copy run start save the current configuration in RAM into the NVRAM
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show version Command

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Configuration Register Values

The configuration register value set the boot option

0x2100 0x2101 0x2102 to 0x210F The value 0x2142 is used to bypass the NVRAM
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Boot system command


- beside the configuration register you can use the boot system command to force booting location.

Router(config)# boot system flash


Router(config)# boot system rom

Router(config)# boot system tftp


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show flash command

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show running-config and show startup-config Commands

Displays the current and saved configuration


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show interfaces Command

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Interpreting the Interface Status


S0/0 S0/1 Interface is working properly Layer 1 status Layer 2 status

Other interface status :


- Serial0/1 is administratively down , line protocol is down interface is shut down - Serial0/1 is down , line protocol is down interface or cable H/W failure ( no keep-alives ) - Serial0/1 is up , line protocol is down different encapsulation type ( PPP , HDLC , FR ) or no clock rate on the DCE device.
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Serial Interface show controller Command

Shows the cable type of serial cables

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Discovering Neighbors with CDP


CDP runs on routers with Cisco IOS to get information about the direct connected Cisco devices. Summary information includes: Device identifiers Address list Port identifier Capabilities list Platform
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Using the show cdp neighbors Command

RouterA# show cdp neighbors detail provide also the neighbors ip addresses.
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Using Telnet to Connect to Remote Devices

Telnet is used to check all the TCP/IP stack

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Viewing Telnet Connections

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Suspending and Resuming a Telnet Session

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Closing a Telnet Session

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Using the ping and trace Commands

Ping commands tests the connectivity and path to a remote device ( test layer 3 in TCP/IP )
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Cisco IOS copy Command


To save IOS image or configuration file # #

#
# #

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