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Quality Team Improvement


Quality Minds, Inc. 2/26/09

Quality Team Improvement Boards
• Sometimes called story boards
• Used to summarize the activities of quality improvement
• There is no set format. It is left to the creativity of the
• Keep it simple-I suggest the following:
– Trend Chart
– Pareto Chart
– Process Flow Diagram
– 5W2H Problem Definition
– Fishbone Diagram
– Nominal Technique
– Corrective Action (PDCA)
– Paynter Chart
Team Story Board
Exteme Values

30 Fishbone Diagram
M T W Th F Sa S M T




Cumulative Percentage of Total Defectives

Percent of Total Defectives




Nominal Technique


Emulsion-Glue Oil/Dirt Hot Melt-Glue Sewing Thread Gilding Defects

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T
What Action Plan Paynter Chart
Plan M T W Th
5W2H Where
Defect 8 5 6C 0
Act Do
How Detected
How Many Check 3
Trend Chart
• Presents data in a time
sequence mode Trend Analysis of Shooting Percentage for an Eighth Grade Basketball Team
• Always start with a picture of 50.00% Variable

the response variable over FG Shooting %

Pe rce nt a ge of Shots Ma de in Ga me
time. How has it behaved over 45.00%
time? Are there any patterns
to the behavior? 40.00%

• Steps for Creating a Trend

Chart 35.00%
– Draw an x and y axis
– The time variable will be on the x axis 30.00%
and the response variable will be on
the y axis
– Plot the response variable in the time 25.00%
sequence of the data
– Interpret the chart 20.00%
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Pareto Diagrams
• 80/20 rule: Approximately 80% of
problems are caused by approximately
20% of defect categories
• A pareto diagram helps you focus on the
vital few defect categories
• The tool helps you best utilize your
resources. You will be working on the
right things.
How To Create a Pareto Diagram
• Step 1: Write the categories in Defect Total Percent of Cumulative Cumulative
Category Defectives Total Total Percent
descending order along with the
amount for each category Emulsion- 67 23.9 67 23.9
• Step 2: Add up the amount to get a
total amount Oil/Dirt 59 21.1 126 45

• Step 3: For each category, calculate Hot melt- 30 10.7 156 55.7
the percent of the total amount. (This glue
will be the height of each bar) Sewing 29 10.4 185 66.1
• Step 4: Write a cumulative total beside Thread
each category. (This will be used to Gilding 28 10.0 213 76.1
plot the straight line on the Pareto defects
Diagram) End Sheet 25 8.9 238 85
• Step 5: For each category, calculate
the cumulative percentage Case
17 6.1 255 91.1

• Step 6: Create the pareto diagram. Square 17 6.1 272 97.1

The height of each bar is the Variation
percentage from step three. Draw in Head 6 2.1 278 99.3
the cumulative line using the Bands
percentage from step five Upside 2 0.7 280 100.0
Total 280

Example of Pareto Diagram
Pareto Chart of Paint Defects

90 100

Number of Defectives


40 40
20 20
0 0
Paint Defects
uns ip
ter tte
i nt her
r is Pa
S p R D Bl pla d Ot
ght S Ba
Number of Defectives 30 25 11 10 7 5 4
Percent 32.6 27.2 12.0 10.9 7.6 5.4 4.3
Cum % 32.6 59.8 71.7 82.6 90.2 95.7 100.0
How to Create a Process Flow
• Determine the start and stop points to your flow of
process steps . The stop point is typically near the
• Walk through the flow, writing down the process steps as
they exist now (Rule of thumb: Pretend your are the part).
Make sure you use a noun and verb to describe the
process step.
– You can be very general or very specific.
• General: “Machine Part”
• Specific: “Turn part, grind outside diameter,
and deburr part”
• Once you have roughly mapped out the process, make it
more formal by adding symbols.

Activity Decision Point Start/Stop

(Process Step)

• If possible, number the process steps. This helps link the

process flow diagram to the other key documents
(especially the PFMEA and Control Plan)
• Once finished, sign and date the flow diagram with a
revision level.

5W, 2H Method for Defining a
• Analogy to newspaper articles
• Who: Area affected, part number, completely identify the
• What: What is the symptom of the problem? Use
• When: Date of occurrence and other time specific details
• Where: Location of occurrence: in house and where, at
the customer, in the market place
• Why: The content of the complaint, why is this a
• How Detected: How was the problem detected?
• How Many?: The defective rate

Cause and Effect Diagrams
• A problem solving tool: best used
for continuous improvement
projects Cause-and-Effect Diagram
• Filling out the Fishbone Diagram Material Man

– Write the problem statement in the

head I dea 10 I dea 1

– Brainstorm for ideas in a group of

five to six people I dea 11 I dea 2

– Place the ideas on a fishbone I dea 12 I dea 2

diagram using the 4Ms as Problem

categories (Man, Material, Statement

Method, and Machine) or create I dea 6 I dea 9

categories that best fit the ideas I dea 5 I dea 8

– Vote on the critical ideas and

decide on the vital few I dea 4 I dea 7

– Develop an action plan for the Methods Machines

vital few ideas

Nominal Group Technique
• Principles Ideas TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4 TM5 Total Priority
– Works best if the number of ideas is
relatively small (less than thirty)
• How to Use the Nominal Technique: A 6 5 7 5 6 29 1
• Assign a letter or number to each idea
generated in the brainstorming session
B 3 2 4 1 3 13 6
• Each team member writes the letters,
numbers, or ideas on sheets of paper
• Each team member prioritizes the ideas by
C 1 1 2 2 2 8 7
placing a priority number next to the letter.
For example, if there are eight ideas,
identify the most important idea with an
eight and the least important with a one. D 4 4 5 6 4 23 4
• Compute the totals for each idea and
assign priority. The idea with the highest
point total gets the highest priority. E 7 7 6 7 1 28 2

F 2 3 1 3 5 14 5

G 5 6 3 4 7 25 3

The PDCA Cycle of Improvement
To improve processes, first find out what areas
need improvement. Based on what you learn, plan
Plan a change or test. Avoid the “shot gun” approach.
Have a plan. Decide what you want to do and how
you will do it. You don’t know if it will work but put
your best foot forward. Think ahead to the check
phase and decide now how you will measure results.

You have planned, done, and

checked. Now you must
decide what to do with the
results of your check. The
Act Do Once you have a plan, carry out
options typically include: the change or test on a small
Adopt the change Continuous scale to minimize disruption to
Abandon it and go back to Improvement of normal activity. Example: Don’t
the drawing board Work Processes run a trial (with a process
Run it through the cycle change) for an entire week. If it
again using a different area, fails, the costs could be high. Try
running a larger scale trial, or it on a smaller scale (ex. one half
making the trial more shift) first. It is important to do
complex. something. The best plans are
Start over at the planning worthless if they are not carried
phase out.

In the Plan phase, you should have decided how to measure the results of
the Do phase. After completing the Do phase, check to see if the changes
or tests are working (What did you learn? What went right? What went
wrong? What does the data mean?)
PDCA as it Applies to Taking
• Plan: Corrective Action
– What action will be taken, who will manage it, when
will it be done?
• Do:
– Carry out of the corrective action per the due date
• Check:
– Verify that the corrective action worked. Make sure
the root cause was eliminated
• Act
– If the root cause was not eliminated, start over
– If it was eliminated, proceed with step six (preventive
Verifying the Action Works
• There must be a Defect Day
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
process for
monitoring the Emulsion
-glue 7
6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
effectiveness of
corrective action. Oil/Dirt
3 4 5 7 10
13 0 0 0
– Simply put, the defect
Hot Melt
must not be seen after glue
the action is taken.
• Paynter chart is a Thread
great tool for verifying
corrective action (C) Defects