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Seminar on

Rapid freezing prototyping with water

Presented by CHETAN P.MASKI. (4PS09MCM02)
2nd SEM M Tech, PESCE Mandya 571 401


1. Introduction
The Solid Freeform techniques also known as Rapid Prototyping or

Layered Manufacturing . By using water as the material and rapid freezing as the building method, RFP has the potential to build ice patterns with good accuracy and surface finish.
Easy to build different colorized portions, and transparent parts are

additional properties that are good for both tooling and design visualization applications. The popular applications of this technique are visual aids, Rapid tooling etc.

2.Principle of Rapid Freezing Prototyping

Principle of Rapid Freeze Prototyping

2. 3.

Concept of the technique Experimental system Building strategy

2.1. Concept of the technique

In the continuous process, the liquid material is continuously extruded from a nozzle to the surface of the substrate or the previously built layer. In the drop-on-demand process, the liquid material is ejected to the substrate surface or the previously solidified ice surface drop by drop. When the material touches the surface, it rapidly freezes and firmly sticks to the surface.

Fig shows, The schematic drawing of strands for different ratios of material flow rate to XY moving speed

In continuous process, the ratio of the in-nozzle material flow rate to the nozzle XY moving speed is critical. A ratio too large may cause failure in controlling its out-nozzle flow along the ice surface; a ratio too small may cause discontinuity in the freezing strands, hence the normal ratio must be maintained in order to achieve the proper deposition.

2.2 Experimental system

RFP experimental system structure

The main components of the system are:

Material extruding subsystem. 2. Material deposition head. 3. Three-dimensional positioning subsystem. 4. Freezing chamber.

Motor driven extrusion head

The material extruding system extrudes and deposit continuously a desired amount of water onto build surface. In motor driven method , water is contained in the cylinder and is continuously extruded by the piston. The motion control card generates control pulses according the control software program, and the pulses applied to the motor controls the material flow.

Nozzle head design and multi-nozzle arrangement

The material depositing head may have multiple nozzles mounted on one head, which are designed for depositing building material, support material, color material, and have different nozzles to improve build speed.

For the multi-nozzle head, the nozzle selection can be accomplished by activating a certain electromagnet. In order to prevent the material in the head from freezing, some heating components are needed to keep it at the desired temperature.

2.3. Building strategy

Three different part build strategies The part boundary is built with smaller aperture nozzle (for part

accuracy& surface finish)and interior is built with larger aperture nozzle,(for build speed)both nozzles perform continuous deposition. The part boundary is built with drop on demand nozzle (for part accuracy& surface finish)and interior is built with continuous nozzle(or build speed). The part boundary is built with smaller aperture nozzle, the interior weaves built with medium aperture nozzle and then the interior spacing are filled with a large aperture nozzle, here all the three nozzles are of continuous kind.

Main features of rapid freezing prototyping

RFP is a cheaper and cleaner prototype building deposition technique . RFP has the potential to build accurate ice parts with excellent surface finish. The ice part made by RFP is easy to remove from a mold simply by warming it up and making the mold dry. The ice parts are easy to join due to its self welding property. hence a very complex parts can be made in several portions and then joined together. RFP does not have the problem of heat accumulation.

Main features of rapid freezing prototyping

It is easy to build colorized parts with RFP process. Different portions of a part can be built with different colors of same material. During material freezing in RFP, the material expands and causes compress stresses in the part. The expansion of the material can be compensated by properly selecting the interior fill spacing.

Applications of ice patterns

RFP can easily build colorized and transparent ice parts. A model of

diseased organ can help the surgeon to prepare the operation better. By utilizing RFP, a colorized ice model can be made with the CT scanning information, with different portions in different colors. This colorized ice model can provide the surgeon with more information about a disease focus. The transparent feature of the ice model makes it possible to see the internal structure of the diseased organ.

Rapid tooling Silicone molding with ice patterns at low temperature is feasible.

Advantages of Rapid freezing prototyping

High precision, when using ice prototype in investment

casting, as ice pattern shrinks not like wax patterns which expands when heated to losing, it wouldnt crack the ceramic shell, in turn the precision and smoothness of ceramic shell could be kept to the most extent. Low cost, because water is so cheap and widely available, so that the material cost is negligible. No pollution, The building process and building material have no negative impact on the operator and environment.

Case study
Background and Introduction During recent ten years, the combination of RP and Investment Precision Cast technology becomes an effective approach to produce metal tools quickly. The Center for Laser Rapid Forming (CLRF) of Tsinghua University in China has studied and developed RP and RT technology since 1992. In the course of developing Melt Extrusion Modeling (MEM) process, when applying prototype of MEM to Investment Casting, the thermo-plastic material expands and then cracks the ceramic shell during the course of losing pattern, the expansion of the prototype may even breaks the ceramic shell completely. Considering this disadvantage of applying prototype of MEM to investment casting, the CLRF in Tsinghua University started to use water replacing thermo-plastic materials and put forward a new RP process-Rapid Prototyping Technology of Low Temperature Ice Forming.

Rapid Tooling. Similar to losing Wax Investment

Casting, using the ice pattern instead of the wax pattern, metal parts can be cast through Investment Precision Casting at low temperature. Advantages of ice pattern casting include easy pattern.

(a)Ice prototype

(b)Ceramic shell


Ice link rod, Half curve, Spiral solid in sin curve

Rapid Freezing Prototyping is a novel solid freeform

fabrication process which has some advantages and disadvantages. The major disadvantage is that it needs a low temperature operating environment. However, its advantages including clean and cheap material, good surface finish, potentially good accuracy, easy pattern removal and joining, easy expansion compensation, and fast building speed make it a good choice in some application areas. Silicone molding with ice patterns at low temperatures is feasible.

Thank you