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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Catherine Hillard Jaymie Trask Trevor Larson

Overview
THREE KEY ISSUES Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Energy Production Geothermal Energy Cost

GLOBAL IMPACTS
SOCIETAL IMPACTS ROLE OF THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER

Geothermal Reservoirs
Heat from the Earth

Clean, renewable resource


Temperatures between ~200F and 700F U.S. Commercial power since 1960s. International market.

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Reservoirs

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Reservoirs
~4,000 miles deep

~5,500C
42 million megawatts (MW) per year Geothermal is constantly available

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production

http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Ch04.pdf

Geothermal Energy Production


High-pressure geothermal water separates into steam and water 900 MW of the 3,187 MW of installed geothermal capacity in the U.S

http://www.geo-energy.org/reports/Gea-GeothermalBasicsQandA-Sept2012_final.pdf

Geothermal Energy Cost

http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Ch04.pdf

Social Impacts
Plants produce some sludge Zinc, sulfur, silica, etc. Small visual impact No storage, transportation, or combustion fuels Lower energy cost per kWh BHP currently $0.0825 Geothermal about $0.05

Sources: http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Ch04.pdf http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/faqs.html#geothermal_energy_cost

Social Impacts
90% availabilities or higher Coal only 75% May cause sink holes from voids Wairakei sinks 0.5 meters per year since power station (New Zealand)

Sources: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/geothermal-energy/page-5 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/faqs.html#geothermal_energy_cost

Global Impacts
Low emissions compared to coal plants Can be utilized almost anywhere Steam reservoirs Heat pumps Magma awaiting technology

Sources: http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Ch04.pdf http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/faqs.html#geothermal_energy_cost

Global Impacts
Increase rate of natural emissions Removes heat from reservoirs 10x replenishment Renewable resource Recycle the material back to energy source

Sources: http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Ch04.pdf http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/faqs.html#geothermal_energy_cost

Role of Chemical Engineers


EGS CO2ETM Small scale heating Research and Development

Enhanced Geothermal Systems


Apply small forces to stimulate rock layers to slip Different than oil and gas fracking Hot rock and cool water Thermal Contraction Closed Loop Technology

http://www.geysers.com/systems.aspx

Enhanced Geothermal Systems


Favorable EGS Temps at ~2-6 miles

below surface

http://www.geysers.com/untapped.aspx

CO2E

TM

GreenFire Energy St. Johns Dome

formation near Springerville, AZ


Compress CO2 and

pump underground

Carbon Sequestration
http://energy.gov/articles/innovative-geothermal-startup-will-put-carbon-dioxide-good-use

Discussion
Is geothermal energy more economically feasible than

coal powered plants?


Where can CO2ETM be applied across the US? What are some risks associated with geothermal energy?