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ENGLISH OXFORD- a word used to connect

clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause (e.g. and, if).
A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects

(conjoins) parts of a sentence.


Conjunctions do not normally cause serious errors,

but writers are sometimes confused about when to place a comma before a conjunction. Unfortunately, there is no simple rule, such as: Never put a comma before 'and'.
When two simples sentences are joined together

using a conjunction (e.g., and, but, or), it should be preceded by a comma.


Our team was given 2 minutes' notice, but theirs had

been training for weeks. ("Our team was given 2 minutes' notice." + "Theirs had been training for weeks". These two sentences are merged into one using the conjunction "but". In this role, "but" should be preceded by a comma.)

When a coordinating conjunction connects two

independent clauses, it is often (but not always) accompanied by a comma: Ali wants to play for Man U, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements. When the two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction are nicely balanced or brief, many writers will omit the comma: Ulysses has a great jump shot but he isn't quick on his feet. The comma is always correct when used to separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction.

A comma is also correct when and is used

to attach the last item of a serial list, although many writers (especially in newspapers) will omit that final comma: Ulysses spent his summer studying basic math, writing, and reading comprehension. When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect all the elements in a series, a comma is not used: Presbyterians and Methodists and Baptists are the prevalent Protestant congregations in Oklahoma.

#1- Coordinating conjunctions-also called

coordinators, are conjunctions that join two or more items of equal syntactic importance, such as words, main clauses, or sentences.
and but or yet


nor so

mnemonic acronym FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So.

for- presents a reason ("He is gambling with his

health, for he has been smoking far too long."). and- presents non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s) ("They gamble, and they smoke."). nor- presents a non-contrasting negative idea ("They do not gamble nor do they smoke.").

but- presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble,

but they don't smoke."). or- presents an alternative item or idea ("Every day they gamble or they smoke."). yet- presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, yet they don't smoke."). so- presents a consequence ("He gambled well last night so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.").

#2- Correlative conjunctions Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words

and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. There are six different pairs of correlative conjunctions: either...or not only...but (also) neither...nor (or increasingly neither...or) both...and whether...or just

Examples: You either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office. Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant. Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well. Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well. Whether you stay or you go, it's your decision. Just as Aussies love Aussie rules football, so many Canadians love ice hockey.

#3- Subordinating conjunctions Also called subordinators, are helpful in writing

paragraphs with an independent clause and a dependent clause after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, where as, wherever, and while

Examples: Although it was raining, I didn't get wet. I will be late today because my car has broken

down. Whereas my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at home for my vacations. Paula got the job even though she had no experience. Jun couldn't buy any Christmas presents because he didn't have any mone I don't drink coffee as it makes me nervous.


1. I need to work hard _____ I can pass the exam. 2. ______ he was the best qualified party candidate, he didn't win the elections. 3. ______ you come back from your trip, we'll meet to discuss the problem. 4. They said that the movie was fantastic, _____ I watched it.

5. ______ he was very ill, he didn't take any medicine. 6. I don't know _____ I can buy a pair of jeans. 7. She went to the shops ____couldn't find anything she liked. 8. Everybody likes him because he is nice _____ helpful. 9. ______ he was angry with her, he didn't utter a word. 10.Keep quiet _____ go out.

1- so that 2- Although 3- When

4- so
5- Although 6- where 7- but

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