Anda di halaman 1dari 19

PID CONTROLLER

Introduction

Pengendali otomatis membandingkan nilai sebenarnya dari keluaran sistem dengan masukannya, menentukan penyimpangan dan menghasilkan sinyal kendali yang akan mengurangi penyimpangan sehingga menjadi nol atau sekecil mungkin. Pengendali proportional, integral dan derivative (PID) sangat populer di industri karena sederhana dalam desainnya dan sudah teruji kehandalannya.

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

The three-term controller

Transfer function dari pengendali PID adalah sebagai berikut:

Kp = Proportional gain KI = Integral gain Kd = Derivative gain

Dari blok diagram sistem close loop diatas, sinyal error (e) akan dikirim ke PID controller, selanjutnya PID controller akan menghitung dan mengeluarkan sinyal control law (u) sebesar:

The characteristics of P, I, and D controllers

Proportional controller Kp berdampak: mengurangi rise time, mengurangi tapi tidak bisa menghilangkan steady state error. Integral controller Ki berdampak: menghilangkan steady state error namun membuat transient respon-nya jelek. Derivative controller Kd berdampak: meningkatkan stabilitas sistem, mengurangi overshoot dan memperbaiki transient response.

Example Problem

Persamaan differensial sistem disamping adalah:

Click to edit the outline text format

Dengan transformasi Laplace didapat:

Second Outline Level

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Transfer function dari sistem ini adlah:

Outline

Misalnya diambil data:

M = 1kg

Level Fifth Outline Level

Memasukkan data diatas kedalam transfer function diperoleh:

Kita akan memdesain PID controller dengan design criteria sbb:


Fast rise time Minimum overshoot No steady-state error

Open-loop step response

Matlab program:

num=1; den=[1 10 20]; plant=tf(num,den); step(plant)


Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

steady-state error of 0.95 rise time is about one second and the settling time is about 1.5 seconds.

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

Let's design a controller that will reduce the rise time, reduce the

Level Fifth Outline Level

Proportional control

The closed-loop transfer function of the above system with a proportional controller is:

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

Misalnya Kp=300:

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Kp=300; contr=Kp;

Outline

sys_cl=feedback(contr*plant,1);
t=0:0.01:2;

Level Fifth Outline Level

Proportional-Derivative control

The closed-loop transfer function of the given system with a PD controller is:

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

Let Kp equal 300 as before and let Kd equal 10.

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Kp=300; Kd=10; contr=tf([Kd Kp],1); sys_cl=feedback(contr*plant,1);

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

Proportional-Integral control

For the given system, the closedloop transfer function with a PI control is:

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

Let's reduce the Kp to 30, and let Ki equal 70.

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Kp=30; Ki=70; contr=tf([Kp Ki],[1 0]); sys_cl=feedback(contr*plant,1);

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

Proportional-Integral-Derivative control

The closed-loop transfer function of the given system with a PID controller is:

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

After several trial and error runs, the gains Kp=350, Ki=300, and Kd=50 provided the desired response.

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

Kp=350; Ki=300; Kd=50;

Level Fifth Outline Level

General tips for designing a PID controller


1.

Obtain an open-loop response and determine what needs to be improved Add a proportional control to improve the rise time Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot Add an integral control to eliminate the steady-state error

2.

3.

4.

5.

Adjust each of Kp, Ki, and Kd until you obtain a desired overall response. You can always refer to the table shown in this "PID Tutorial" page to find out which controller controls what characteristics.

Example: PID Design method for the Pitch EOM of an aircraft can be Controller Click to edit the outline
decoupled and linearized into the longitudinal and lateral equations. Pitch control is a longitudinal problem, and in this example, we will design an autopilot that controls the pitch of an aircraft.

text format

Second Outline Level

The longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft can be written as:

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

Transfer function model

Let's plug in some numerical values to simplify the modeling equations (1) shown above.

These values are taken from the data from one of Boeing's commercial aircraft. The Laplace transform of the above equations are shown below.

After few steps of algebra, you should obtain the following transfer function.

Design requirements

Overshoot: Less than 10% Rise time: Less than 2 seconds Settling time: Less than 10 seconds Steady-state error: Less than 2%

MATLAB representation and open-loop response

Let the input (delta e) be 0.2 rad (11 degrees).

Click to edit the outline text format

de=0.2; num=[1.151 0.1774]; den=[1 0.739 0.921 0];

Second Outline Level

pitch=tf(num,den);
step(de*pitch)axis([0 15 0 0.8]) From the plot, we see that the openloop response does not satisfy the design criteria at all. In fact the open-loop response is unstable.

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

Proportional control

The closed-loop transfer function of the system as:

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

Kp=[1];
num=[1.151 0.1774]; den=[1 0.739 0.921 0]; pitch=tf(num,den); contr=tf(Kp,1);

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

PD control

The closed-loop transfer function of the system with a PD controller is:

Click to edit the outline text format

Second Outline Level

Let a proportional gain (Kp) of 9 and a derivative gain (Kd) of 4,

Third Outline Level


Fourth

de=0.2; Kp=9; Kd=4; contr=tf([Kd Kp],1);

Outline

Level Fifth Outline Level

PID control

Let the proportional gain (Kp) of 2, the integral gain (Ki) of 4, and the derivative gain (Kd) of 3:

Click to edit the outline text format

de=0.2; Kp=2; Kd=3; Ki=4;

Second Outline Level

Third Outline Level


Fourth

Outline

num=[1.151 0.1774];
den=[1 0.739 0.921 0];

Level Fifth Outline Level