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Introduction to Aircraft Structure

References: Strength Of Materials (Shanley)


Structural Principles and Data (R.Ae.S. Handboook)

-T.G.A.Simha
Structural Analysis

Objective
To ensure Airframe has adequate Strength
To ensure Airframe has adequate durability

Adequate Strength
No Yielding at limit Load
No Failure at ultimate Load

Adequate Durability
Achieve Design Service Life

Determination of Strength
Strength
Based on Material Properties
Based on Structural Geometry

Strength expressed as an Allowable Stress

Analysis to determine the applied stress

Adequacy expressed as
Reserve Factor = (Allowable Stress)/ (Applied Stress)

Margin of Safety = Reserve Factor 1.0
Fundamental Principles

Equilibrium

Compatibility

Saint Venants Principle

Conservation of Energy
Stresses
In 3 D there are 3 direct and 3 Shear stresses.





Complimentary Shear Stresses




Plane Stress State


t
xy
= t
yx

t
yz
=

t
zy

t
zx
= t
xz

t
xy
o
y
o
x
o
y
o
x
o
z
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
o
x
t
yx
Stress Transformation
Mohr Circle
Stress Transformations
Stress Strain Relations
Strain Transformation
Basic Structural Elements
Classification of Force Transmission
Axially Loaded Structures
Examples :
Tubular Fuselage structure of Light Airplanes
Undercarriage side braces
Control Rods

Stress o = P = Load
A Area of cross - section

Trusses
Simple Structure
Light Weight and Good Stiffness
Must be loaded at joints (predominantly)

Analysis of Structures

Criteria for stability and determinacy

2D Truss m = 2j 3
3D Truss m = 3j 6

Where
j ---- No. of Joints
m---- No. of members

Method of Analysis

Method of Joint

Equilibrium equation at each joint

Solution of joints in succession

Determine load in each member


Method of Section

Consider a section through the structure

Section with 3 members -2D truss

Section with 6 members -3D truss

Obtain Loads in members using equilibrium equations.
Deflection of trusses

Methods for determination of deflection
Influence coefficient method
Unit load method
Principle of Virtual work
Castiglianos Theorem

o = cU/ cP
Where, o --- Deflection
U----Strain Energy
P ----Applied Force

Unit Load method assumes application of a unit load at the point where
o is required.
Calculate the change in internal energy

o = P
i
U
i
L
i

A
i
E
i



i = m
i = 1
Bending of Beams

Beams are loaded transversely

Reacted at the support

Support condition

Simple support

Deflection prevented

Rotation allowed

Fixed support (Clamped)

Deflection prevented

Rotation prevented




Definitions :-


Bending Moment of a Section

Sum of moment of all forces acting on one side of the section (including
reactions)


Shear Force at a section

Sum of all forces acting on one side of the section. (including reactions)
Examples of SF and BM diagrams.
Examples of pure Bending Cantilever Beam with concentrated Loads
Shear and Bending-moment Curves for Cantilever Beams
Shear and Bending-moment Curves for Cantilever Beams contd...
Shear and BM diagrams for simple (pinned-end) beams
Shear and BM diagrams for simple (pinned-end) beams contd
Stress due to Bending

Basic Equation: M/ I = o / Y = E/ R
And o = (MY) / I

Strains in a Bent Beam
Bending of Unsymmetrical Section
Inelastic Bending

Modulus of Rupture Form Factor


Bending of Curved Beams


Correction Factor for Maximum Stress in curved
Beams (rectangular c/s)
Effect of Initial Curvature on Strain Distribution
Shear Stress Distribution

Concept of Shear Flow : q = t .t

Shear Flow in beam cross section

q = (V / I) } y dA

Variation of Shear Stress for Various C/S
0
y
Concept of Shear Centre
Deflection of Beams


Beam Differential Equation

d
2
y = - M
dx
2
E I


Therefore y = }} -M dxdx + Ax + B
I


Conjugate Beam method

Unit Load Method

Maxwells Reciprocal Theorem
o
ij
= o
ji
Torsion of Circular Shafts

Basic Equation:

T/J = t/r = Gu/L

where, J = Polar Moment of Inertia
t r and u L

Max. Shear force occurs at the outer surface
Applicable for Hollow Shafts also



Nature of Basic Assumptions for Torsion of Solid Round Bars
Torsion of Non-Circular Shafts Rectangular Section

Shear Stress at corner = 0

Max. Shear stress, t = T / (obt
2
)

The twist, u = (TL) / (|bt
3
G) = (TL) / (GJ)

where, J, Torsion Constant = |bt
3

o, | constants depend on b/t


b/t 1.00 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.50 3.00 4 6 8 10

o 0.208 0.231 0.239 0.246 0.258 0.267 0.282 0.209 0.307 0.313 0.333
| 0.141 0.196 0.214 0.229 0.249 0.263 0.281 0.290 0.307 0.313 0.333
Torsion of Thin Walled Closed Sections















The shear flow q = T/ (2A) (Bredt Batho Equation)

Where, A is the enclosed area of cross-section

q = Shear Flow, Shear Stress t = q / t

J = 4A
2
/ } ds/t



Thin Walled Torsion box
Thin Walled Open Tubes












Section with constant Thickness continuous

t = T/ (ob
eff
t
2
)
b
eff
=

b
i
For sections such as I, T

J
eff
= J
i

Shear Stress, t
i
= T
*
L
*

J
i
*

1

J
eff
G ob
i
t
i
2





Comparison of Closed and open tube



Closed Tube Open Tube


t = T / (2tR
2
t) t = 3T / (2tRt
2
)


u = TL / (2tR
3
tG) u = 3TL / (2tRt
3
G)
Torsion Bending











General Torsion Equation

T = GJ du/ dz - EI d
3
u/ dz
3
I- Torsion Bending Constant



o
T
= -E I d
2
u/ dz
2
w*


t
T
= E d
3
u/dz
3
. (1/ t) . } w* t ds





0
s
W* = } p t ds (Warping Function)
S

0
Columns
Concept of Buckling - stability




P
b
/o = 4P
a
/L = K
Spring Constant k= 4 P/L

This stiffness is provided by Bending stiffness.

Ideal column P
cr
=
2
E I (Euler load)
L
2
Column Strength is affected by
End Conditions
Material Plasticity
Eccentricities


Effect of End Conditions

















L
eff
= o L
Various types of Column and End Constraint
Effect of Material Plasticity

American Approach

Long Columns

Short Columns
Johnson Parabola
Column Yield Stress


British Approach

Replace E with an Effective Modulus E
eff

E
eff
= E
T
(Tangent Modulus)







Effect of Eccentricity (e)















Secant Formula


Beam Columns

Beam Bending moments magnified by Axial Load

Bending Moments depend on deflection of beam


M
max
= M
o
/ (1 - P/P
cr
) (approximate)


.


Where
M
o
Bending Moment of Beam without
end Load
P
cr
Euler Buckling Load
P Applied compression (end load)
Buckling of Plates

Plates subjected to compression buckle similar to columns
Deformation of the plate is characterized by wave length ,
Wave length, depends on the aspect ratio, a/b
Critical stress, o = KE
eff
(t/b)
2

K coefficient depends on a/b
E
eff
= the effective modulus




Effective Width

Plate after buckling continues to carry additional load
Stress increases at the sides over an effective width
Effective width, W = 1.71 t \ (E/ o
e
), o
e
= edge stress
This is also presented as average stress-edge stress
relation
Max. capacity is reached when o
e
= o
y





Effective area = (o
a
/ o
e
). bt b = (o
a
/ o
e
). b
Tangent area = (c o
a
/ c o
b
) .bt b ~ (c o
a
/ c o
b
) .b
Local Buckling

The individual flat elements buckle under
compression

The column has post buckle strength

The ultimate state reached is known as
Crippling

Simple estimate of crippling stress

o
crp
= \ o
y
o
b


Load buckling of cylinders

Buckling stress of a cylinder

o
b
= 0.19 E t/R

When reinforced with longitudinal stiffness

o
b
= 0.19E t/R + K E (t/b)
2
b = stiffener spacing



Buckling of sheet stringer panels




Initial Buckling of sheet stringer
panels





Flexural Mode



P
cr
= (t
2
E
eff
I
eff
)/L
2





o
e
= P
cr
/(As + (o
a
/ o
e
). bt )


where, I
eff
= Moment of inertia of stringer and effective area of plate


Effective area of plate A
eff
= (c o
a
/ c o
b
) .bt
o
e
is estimated by successive iterations
b is the stringer spacing and t is the plate thickness











Torsional Mode of Bucking
Figure shows the torsional mode of an open section strut
o
T
= [GJ + (t/)
2
E
eff
I + (/ t)
2
k] / I
b

Torsional mode of buckling of sheet stringer panel
The torsional mode and Flextural mode interact and result in Torsional-Flextural
(Flextor) mode







Typical Buckling of Sheet Stringer Panel








Buckling of Plates in Shear


t
cr
= K E (t/b)
2





Buckling in Shear curved plates






Buckling of Plates in Bending
+Axial Stress







Buckling of Plates under biaxial stress and shear





t
o
x
o
y
Critical Stress Predicted using ESDU 81047
Tension Field Beams

The webs of beam can carry shear load after buckling

The shear is carried as diagonal tension

This causes additional compression in the vertical stiffeners as well as in
edge members

The failure of web or permanent deformation of web

The edge members are also subjected to bending due to diagonal tension
and act as beam columns

Vertical stiffeners act as columns



Statically Indeterminate Structures

Structures such as continuous beam, Portal Frames, Fuselage frames, etc.
are classified as statically indeterminate structures

The external reactions (continuous beams) or the internal loads and stresses
(fuselage frames) cannot be determined by equations of static equilibrium

Hence deformation conditions are used to derive additional equations to
solve the problem

The deformation equation can be derived using various methods such as unit
load method, relaxation method, energy method, etc. (Finite Element
Method)

Examples



Aircraft Structural Analysis


The wing and Fuselage structures are essentially beams


The c/s is subjected to

Bending about two axes

Shear about the two axes

Torsion about the longitudinal axes


The bending and shear stresses induced are obtained from simple beam
theory


Wing Box Beams
(Skin Stringer Panels Design)
Transport Wing (Two - cell box)
The Fuselage and Wing Loading


Wing bending moment envelope for static conditions
Wing Design Torsion envelope for Static Conditions
Body monocoque vertical shear envelope
Body monocoque vertical Bending Moment envelope
Body monocoque Lateral shear envelope
Body monocoque Lateral Bending Moment envelope
Body monocoque Torsion envelope
Determination of Bending Stresses


Section properties I
x
, I
y
and I
xy
are computed


Allowance of skin effective area in above calculations


Allowance for taper effects


Stresses calculated using beam formula (M/I y)



Determination of Shear flows


Shear flow is estimated from Aq = (V / I) } y dA for shear


Shear flow due to torsion from q = T / (2A)


For closed sections and multiple cell sections, twist conditions are used to
determine the unknown starting shear flows



Frame Analysis

Fuselage Frames are subjected to concentrated/distributed loads
The fuselage skin provides reaction to these loads
The internal loads in the frame are axial load, shear load and bending
moment
The internal loads are computed using methods of statically indeterminate
structures
Use of charts



Analysis for Ribs


Ribs are essentially analyzed as beams


Ribs are supported by spars


The shear and bending moments are obtained as for a beam

Thank You . . .