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Sel prokariot dan sel eukariot Bakteri Jamur Virus Protozoa Presentasi tugas in english 1 UTS

Archae Antibiotik Desinfektan/Antiseptik Imunologi Vaksin Presentasi tugas in english 2 UAS

Komposisi dan Organisasi Sel Prokariot dan Eukariot

Pendahuluan
Sel adalah unit terkecil yg menunjukkan
semua sifat yg dihubungkan dgn kehidupan Semua sel mengandung makromolekul ttt : lipid, protein, asam nukleat, polisakarida Berdasarkan komposisi dan organisasinya sel dibagi menjadi sel prokariot dan eukariot

SISTEMATIKA DAN TAKSONOMI


Taksonomi : Ilmu yang mempelajari klasifikasi organisme Dua subdisplin (identifikasi dan nomenklatur) Taksonomi vs filogeni : analisis fenotipik sebagai dasar klasifikasi analisis genotipik sebagai dasar klasifikasi Kronometer evolusi : Alat ukur perubahan evolusi Jarak evolusi antara dua spesies dapat dihitung dari perbedaan urutan nukleotida/ asam amino makromolekul homolog yang terdapat pada kedua spesies Pemilihan kronometer yang benar : Terdistribusi secara universal Fungsi identik Align secara benar Perubahan harus sesuai dengan jarak evolusi

SISTEMATIKA DAN TAKSONOMI (lanjutan)


RNA ribosom sebagai kronometer evolusi Ancient molecule Fungsi konstan Terdistribusi secara universal Bersifat cukup konservatif RNA ribosom pada prokariot 5s rRNA 16s rRNA 23s rRNA Berdasarkan urutan nukleotida gen 16s/18sRNA yang mengkode RNA sebagai komponen ribosom : prokariot, arkhaebakteri or eukariot

Cartoon of the tree of life

Figure 1. Last Universal Common Ancestor

Cell Theory
All organisms are composed of one or
more cells. Cells are the smallest living units of all living organisms. Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells


Prokaryote = without a nucleus Eukaryote = with a nucleus

Prokaryotic cells Diagram

Prokaryotic Cells
Simplest organisms
Cytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membrane and encased in a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan. no distinct interior compartments
gram-positive thick single layer wall that retains a violet dye from Gram stain procedure gram-negative multilayered wall does not retain dye Susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics depends on cell wall structure.

Cell Wall
Rigid peptidoglycan polysaccharide coat that gives the cell shape and surround the cytoplasmic membrane. Offers protection from environment.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html

Gram positive cell walls

Figure 18. The Gram-Positive envelope. From Prescott et al., 2005

Gram negative cell walls

Figure 19. The Gram-Negative envelope. From Prescott et al., 2005

Gram negative vs Gram positive


Table 3. Comparison between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Modified from Prescott et al., 2005

Plasma Membrane
Layer of phospholipids and proteins that separates cytoplasm from external environment.

Regulates flow of

material in and out of cell.


Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html

Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bi-layer
that separates the cell from its environment. Selectively permeable to allow substances to pass into and out of the cell.
Http:micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animal/plasmame mbrane.html

Plasma membrane

Figure 16 . Plasma membrane structure. From Prescott et al., 2005

Cytoplasm
Also known as protoplasm is location of growth, metabolism, and replication. Is a gel-like matrix of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases and contains cell structures.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html

Ribosomes
Translate the genetic
code into proteins. Free-standing and dis-tributed throughout the cytoplasm.

Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html

70S RIBOSOME DURING TRANSLATION

Ket : "S" refers to a unit of density called the Svedberg unit

Mesosome
Infolding of cell

membrane. Possible role in cell division. Increases surface area. Photosynthetic pigments or respiratory chains here.
Http://www.med.sc.edu:85/fox/protobact.jpg

Nucleoid
Region of the
cytoplasm where chromosomal DNA is located. Usually a singular, circular chromosome. Smaller circles of DNA called plasmids are also located in cytoplasm.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html

FUNGSI KOMPONEN SEL PROKARIOT


Capsules and slime layers outside of the cell envelope less defined as a slime layer or glycocalyx consist of polysaccharide, in certain bacilli: polypeptide (polyglutamic acid) not always produce a capsule Capsules of pathogenic bacteria during in vitro culture cell wall rigid and protects the cell from osmotic lysis cell membrane where oxidative phosphorylation occurs (since there are no mitochondria). periplasmic space space between the inner and outer membranes Gram negative bacteria store degradative enzymes

Nucleus Contains most of the heriditary material (DNA) of the cell Plasmids extra-chromosomal DNA usually present in multiple copies often code for pathogenesis factors and antibiotic resistance factors involved in bacterial replication. Ribosome Site of protein synthesis Flagella locomotory organelles chemotaxis

Pili synonym: fimbriae types of pili varies in sexual conjugation allow adhesion to host epithelial surfaces in infection Endospores (spores) a dormant form produced by certain bacteria when starved vegetative form resistant to adverse conditions spore cytoplasm is dehydrated and contains calcium dipicolinate which is involved in the heat resistance of the spore are commonly found in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

Table 4. Prokaryotic structures

From Prescott et al., 2005

Generalized Eukaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic Cells
Characterized by compartmentalization by
an endomembrane system, and the presence of membrane-bound organelles.
Central vacuole plants, storage Vesicles (smaller) Chromosomes - DNA and protein Cytoskeleton (internal protein scaffolding) Cell walls plants and fungi

Repository for genetic material Directs activities of the cell Usually single, some cells several

Nucleus

Surface of nucleus bound by two phospholipid


bilayer membranes
nuclear membrane Nuclear pores protein gatekeepers Usually proteins going in and RNA going out

Nucleolus - region of intensive ribosomal RNA synthesis

Nucleus

Chromosomes
DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear
chromosomes.
exist as strands of chromatin, except during cell division associated with packaging histones, packaging proteins nucleosomes

Endosymbiotic hypothesis

Figure 10. A schematic representation of the process of endosymbiosis

Ribosomes
Translate the genetic
code into proteins. Found attached to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm. 60% RNA and 40% protein.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/ribosom es.html

EUKARYOTIC RIBOSOMES
small subunit: 40S One rRNA molecule (18S) 33 different proteins, designated S1-S33 large subunit: 60S Three rRNA molecules (5S, 5.8S, and 28S) 50 different proteins, designated L1-L50
Type Approximate number of nucleotides 1,900 120 156 4,700 Subunit location

18S 5S 5.8S 28S

40S 60S 60S 60S

Compartmentalizes cell, channeling passage


of molecules through cells interior.
Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER - studded with ribosomes Smooth ER - few ribosomes

Endomembrane System

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


Network of
continuous sacs, studded with ribosomes. Manufactures, processes, and transports proteins for export from cell. Continuous with nuclear envelope.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cels/animal/endoplas micreticulum.html

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum


Similar in appearance to rough ER, but
without the ribosomes. Involved in the production of lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of drugs and poisons. Metabolizes calcium.

Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/endoplasmicreticulum.html

Golgi Apparatus
Modifies proteins and
lipids made by the ER and prepares them for export from the cell. Encloses digestive enyzymes into membranes to form lysosomes.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/golgiapp aratus.html

Endomembrane System
Golgi apparatus
collection of Golgi bodies collect, package, and distribute molecules synthesized at one
location in the cell and utilized at another location Front - cis , Back trans Cisternae stacked membrane folds

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cisternae cis face Proteins

trans face Transport vesicle Golgi apparatus

Protein

Vesicle Migrating budding transport from rough vesicle endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome

Fusion of vesicle with Golgi apparatus

Lysosome
Single membrane
bound structure. Contains digestive enzymes that break down cellular waste and debris and nutrients for use by the cell.
Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/lysosom e/html

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cytoplasm
Phagocytosis Food vesicle

Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes Plasma membrane

Extracellular fluid

Digestion of phagocytized food particles or cells

Transport vesicle Old or damaged organelle Breakdown of old organelle

Organelles With DNA


Mitochondria
bounded by exterior and interior membranes interior partitioned by cristae

Chloroplasts
have enclosed internal compartments of stacked grana, containing thylakoids found in photosynthetic organisms

A. "Powerhouse of the cell" - cellular metabolism B. Structure- outer and inner membranes, cristae C. Have their own DNA

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts are larger and more complex than mitochondria Grana closed compartments of stacked membranes Thylakoids disc shaped structure light capturing pigment Stroma fluid matrix

Chloroplasts

Cytoskeleton supporting cell shape and Network of protein fibers


anchoring organelles
Actin filaments cell movement Microtubules Microtubules Intermediate Hollow tubes Facilitate cell movement filaments Centrioles barrel shaped organelles occur in pairs help assemble animal cells microtubules Intermediate filaments Stable - dont break down
Actin

Plant Cells
Central vacuole Cell wall
often found in the center of a plant, and serves as a storage facility for water and other materials primary walls laid down while cell is growing middle lamella glues cells together secondary walls inside the primary cell walls after growth

Cytoskeleton

Plant Cell

Animal cells lack cell walls.


form extracellular matrix provides support, strength, and resilience

Animal Cells

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes


Table 1. Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

From Prescott et al., 2005

Phylogeny of bacteria

Figure 6 . Hierarchical arrangement in taxonomy. From Prescott et al. , 2005

A prokaryotic species is a collection of strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups or strains. A species (genomospecies) is a collection of strains that have a similar G+C composition and 70% or greater similarity as judged by DNA hybridization experiments.

Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya


Table 2. Comparison of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya

From Prescott et al., 2005

Figure 8a. Prokaryotic cell Figure 8b. Eukaryotic cell

Table 2 cont. Comparison of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya