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Human Behavior

Psychology defines behavior as the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation. The Perspectives
1. Traditional 2. Behavioral 3. Input-Output

Traditional Perspective
Situation (S) Organism (O) Response (R)

Here the human being is considered to constantly interact with the environment. Humans observe the surrounding environment, and emulate what others are doing, avoids doing certain things, and in the process develops a certain pattern of behavior.

Behavioral Perspective
Situation (S) Organism (O) Behavior (B)

In this model both the psychological and physiological aspects of the individual (Organism) is taken into consideration. The relation between S-O is responsible for how one behaves. The final variable B which stands for behavior embracing both overt and covert responses and patterns. Here the relation between S-O and O-B are two way processes.

Behavior as an Input-Output
Inputs (I) Processing (P) Output (O)

Stimuli in the form of inputs are processed at a central processing region and concerted into outputs or responses. The central processing region where the stimuli are processed into responses is responsible for cognition. The central processing region is also responsible for storage of information, which is known as memory.

This model concludes that the individuals responses in terms of output depends primarily on his motivation level. Thus motivation forms the basis for Input-Output system. Motivation can be broadly classified as physiological motivation (primary) and sociopsychological motivation (secondary).

Biographical Characteristics
Biographical characteristics are those which affect the performance of employees at work. The characteristics are:
1. Age 2. Gender 3. Marital Status 4. Tenure of the Employee

These characteristics have an impact on the productivity, satisfaction, absenteeism and turnover rate of employees.

Cognitive Processes
Cognitive processes refer to the various higher mental processes of human beings. Some Cognitive processes are: 1. Thinking
2. Problem Solving 3. Autistic thinking 4. Day Dreaming 5. Pathological Thinking

It is defined as The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, practice, or experience. Learning usually causes a relatively permanent change in the behavior of a person. Learning is a significant concept as all organizational behaviors are learnt. Prominent Theories of Learning
1. Behavioristic Theories 2. Cognitive Theories 3. Social Learning Theory

Behaviorist Theories
The oldest theory where principles like reward systems and behavioral management approach are derived. Has two primary classification:
1. Classical Behaviorists 2. Operant Behaviorists

In classical or respondent conditioning learning is considered as the association of stimulus and response (S-R) connection. In operant conditioning or reinforcement theory, consequences determine the behavior that results in learning and so learning is due to (R-S) connection.


According to the reinforcement theory, behavior is repeated depending on the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement. The types of reinforcement are: Positive, Negative and Punishment
Classical Conditioning (Examples)
(S) Stimulus Individual Touches a hot vessel (R) Response Moves away

Hears favorite song

Steps on a nail

Hums and dances Jumps and screams

Operant Conditioning (Examples) (R) Response Individual (S) Stimulus

Browses internet
Uses power carefully Achieves sales target

Obtains desired info To save money on electricity bill

Obtains incentives and gifts.

Cognitive Theories
In this approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge. Learning is evidenced by a change in knowledge which makes a change in behavior possible. The learning of the association between the cue and the expectation is termed stimulusstimulus (S-S) learning. The aim of the theory was to strengthen the relation ship between the cognitive cues and the expectation.

Social Learning Theory

This theory blends both the behaviorist and cognitive concepts, it is primarily dependent on behavioral theory. This theory assumes that learning can also take place through modeling process and selfcontrol processes. Modeling processes: Here it is argued that learning need not arise only due to S-R or R-S relation but also could occur through imitation of others.

Self-efficacy: It has become an integral part to the study of Ob since it helps understand various other concepts like motivation and personality. Efficacy is defined as: The self-perceptions of how well a person can cope with the situation as they arise. People with high self-efficacy can perform better than those with low self-efficacy.

Learning Curve
A graphic representation of the fact that, in repetitive activities, there is a constant and predictable rate of productivity improvement each time the number of units produced is doubled.
K = T. Xn , n = (LogP/Log2) Where: K= Time for Xth unit, T = Time for 1st unit, X = unit number, P = Learning rate in percentage

T i m e

Number of units

It is defined as The process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he/she lives. It is a complex cognitive process and differs from one individual to another, dependent on the needs, values and expectations of the individual.

Subprocesses of Perception
Stimulus or Situation Person

Confrontation of Specific stimulus

External environment Sensual stimulation 1. Physical environment 2. Socio cultural environment

Registration of stimuli by sensory and neural mechanism

Feed Back for clarification

Interpretation of stimulus (e.g., motivation, learning)

Behavior (overt or covert)

Consequence (E.g., Reinforcement or Punishment)

Perpetual Selectivity
Though people are exposed to several stimuli, they tend to select only a few at a given point of time. This is perpetual selectivity. Perpetual selectivity depends on external attention factors and internal set factors.
1. External attention factors: Intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion and novelty and familiarity. 2. Internal set factors: Learning and perception, motivation and perception and personality and perception.

Some Exercises

Social Perception
It deals with how an individual perceives other individuals. So very important in organizations. Characteristics which influence the perceptions of the perceiver:
1. If an individual understands his own personality well, it becomes easier for him or her to understand others accurately. 2. Personal characteristics of an individual may affect the way he perceives others. 3. An individual who has a high self-esteem is more likely to perceive favorable aspects in others as well.

4. How accurately an individual perceives others is based on not just a single skill but involves many other skills.

Characteristic of the person being perceived also play a role in influencing social perception. They are:
1. The person being perceived fall into various categories due to certain aspects associated with them. Some important aspects are the status of the perceived, role of perceived in organization or society and visible traits of the perceived.

Some problems associated with social perception are: Attribution (dispositional and situational),

Stress and Coping

Behavioral experts agree that stress is an individuals response to a physical, psychological or emotional stimulus. Causes of stress:
1. Extra organizational stressors 2. Organizational stressors 3. Group stressors 4. Individual stressors

Effects of occupational stress:

1. Physical problems 2. Psychological problems 3. Behavioral problems

Strategies to cope with stress are broadly classified as individual and organizational strategies. Individual strategies are:
1. Problem related strategies and the strategies are time management, requesting others for help, shifting to another job. 2. Emotion-focused strategies and the strategies are relaxation and exercise. 3. Psychological strategies and the strategies are recreation and companionship.

Organizational strategies are :
1. Problem related strategies and the strategies are redesigning the job, proper selection and placement, training, team building, providing various day care facilities. 2. Emotion-focused strategies and the strategies are promoting open communication within the organization, employee assistance programs, mentoring, wellness programs and personal time off.

Thank You Have a Nice Day