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Marketing

Recommended Text Books:


Fundamentals of Marketing By William J. Stanton (14th Edition) Principals of Marketing By Philip Kotler (A South Asian Perspective 13th Edition)

M. Akbar Bhatti

Basic Terminology
Business: An organization that produces or distributes a good or service for profit is called a business. Industry is a word often used to refer to all businesses within a category doing similar work. For example, the publishing industry includes any business that deals with producing and selling books, magazines, newspapers, and other printed documents prepared by authors. Innovation: An innovation is something entirely new. Innovations affect the kinds of products and services offered for sale by other businesses. For example, clothing used to be made from only natural fibers, such as cotton and wool. Then chemical researchers developed synthetic fibers, such as rayon, nylon, and polyester. Now consumers have more choices in clothing and other fabric products. Innovations also affect business operations. For example, since Apple Computer built one of the first personal computers about 35 years ago, computers operated by individual employees have increasingly influenced the way businesses do business. Computers help businesses design and manufacture products as well as keep track of billing, inventory, and customer information. Computers are now involved in most key business functions. The Internet is an innovation that has literally changed the relationships between businesses and their customers. Customers have 24-hour access to businesses without leaving their homes. Small businesses can compete with large businesses for customers from all over the country and even around the world.
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Effectiveness means making the right decisions about what products or services to offer customers and the best ways to produce and deliver them. Efficiency means producing products and services quickly, at low cost, without wasting time and materials. Franchise is a legal agreement in which an individual or small group of investors purchases the right to sell a companys product or service under the companys name and trademark. Entrepreneur: Someone who starts, manages, and owns a business is called an entrepreneur. An intrapreneur is an employee who is given funds and freedom to create a special unit or department within a company in order to develop a new product, process, or service. Ethics refers to standards of moral conduct that individuals and groups set for themselves, defining what behaviour they value as right or wrong; and a collection of principles and rules that define right and wrong conduct for an organisation is called business ethics. Utility is the ability of a good or a service to satisfy a want. In other words, a good or a service that has utility is a useful good or service. Demand for a product refers to the number of products that will be bought at a given time at a given price.
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Supply of a product refers to the number of like products that will be offered for sale at a particular time and at a certain price. Competition is the rivalry among sellers for consumers dollars. Monopoly is the existence of only one seller of a product. Market refers to the types of buyers a business wishes to attract and where those buyers are located. Target markets are groups of customers with very similar needs to whom the company plans to sell its product. Economy The wealth and resources of a country or region, esp. in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services. i.e. activities related to the production and distribution of good and services in a particular geographic region. Gross Domestic Product. The total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year, equal to total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports, minus the value of imports.
Pakistan GDP $211.09 Billion Gross National Product. GNP is the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad), minus income of nonresidents located in that country. Pakistan GNP $509.61 Billion
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Module 1
The Field of Marketing-Creating & Capturing Customer Value

It is the fate of most companies to see a competitor come out with something new that they should have thought of. Worse, the idea may have been kicking around in their organisation without ever surfacing at a level where it could have been seized and launched. Good ideas are in the air, and what separates the masters from the plodders is how well organised they are to capture and evaluate ideas, and then to develop and launch them successfully.

Philip Kotler

Nature & Scope of Marketing

Peter Drucker, Business firms have only two major functionsinnovation & marketing, and marketing role is to create the customer(market). Thus, Marketing is the main business function in an organisation. It tells us what goods to make, and how many, and by what date; what services to provide, what prices to charge, what discounts to offer; where and when to advertise, what to say to our customers, and how to say it. It is the engine that drives all other activities. It is the difference between success and failure. Marketing can occur at any time a person or organisation strives to exchange something of value with an other person or organisation. Thus, at its core of marketing is an exchange intended to satisfy needs and wants of a customer.
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Marketers need to understand customer needs and wants and the marketplace within which they operate.
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Core Marketplace Concepts

Need: A state of felt deprivation. A human need is a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction. People require food, clothing, shelter, safety, belonging, and esteem. These needs are not created by society or by marketers. They exist in the very texture of human biology and the human condition. E.g. water Want The form taken by a human need as shaped by culture and individual personality. Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs. Although peoples needs are few, their wants are many. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions, including masjids, schools, families and business corporations. E.g. Mineral water or soft drink

Demands Demands are wants for specific products that are backed by an ability and willingness to buy them. Companies must measure not only how many people want their product but, more importantly, how many would actually be willing and able to buy it. E.g., Nestle/ Kenly, Pepsi/ Coke, Designer shirt / sunglasses / expensive mobile phones Product Anything that can be offered to a market. It includes physical objects, services, persons, places, organisations, and ideas. Service Any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible.

Customer: An individual or organisation that makes a purchase decision. Consumer: An individual or organizational unit that uses or consumes the product.

Customer Perceived Value (Customer Value) The customers evaluation of the difference between all the benefits and all the costs of marketing offer relative to those of competing offers. Value = Benefit Cost or Value= Benefit/Cost Customer Satisfaction The extent to which a products perceived performance matches a buyers expectations.
Market The set of all actual and potential buyers of a product or service. A market is an arena for potential exchanges. The term market refers to a place where exchanges take place. People or organisations with wants to satisfy, money to spend, and the willingness to spend it; with an existing or potential exchange relationship.

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Exchange The act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return. Exchange is just one of three ways we can satisfy needs and wants. Make it yourself, acquire it, or offer something of value (money, services, or another good). Conditions for a marketing exchange Two parties (buyer & seller). Willingness to deal with each other. Each having something of value for the other. Right to accept or reject the offer. Capable of communication and delivery. Transaction A trade between two parties that involves at least two things of value, agreed upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
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Market Offerings Some combination of products, services, information, or experiences offered to a market to satisfy a need or want.
Marketing Myopia The mistake of paying more attention to the specific products a company offers than to the benefits and experiences produced by these products. E.g. HP recognises that a computer is more than a collection of wires and electrical components. Focus on underlying customers wants not just the current needs. De-Marketing Marketing to reduce demand temporarily or permanently; the aim is not to destroy demand, but only to reduce or shift it. E.g., KESC, Suzuki etc Relationship Marketing The process of establishing and maintaining mutually beneficial exchange relationships with customer and other stakeholders.

Two components: Customer Focus and Competitive Advantage


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Customer Relationship Management The overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction. the new view is that marketing is the science and art of finding, retaining, and growing profitable customers. Rethink the concepts
Customer Value That is the customer perception of all the benefits of a product weighed against all the costs of acquiring and consuming the product. Customer Delight Actual Benefits (Product Performance) Customer Satisfaction The extent to which a products perceived performance matches a buyers expectations Stated Benefits (Expected Performance) Actual Benefits = Stated Benefits

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Creating Utility
A customer purchases a product because it provides satisfaction. The want-satisfying power of a product is called its utility and it comes in many forms and much of product utility is created through marketing Form Utility is associated with production-the physical or chemical changes that make a product more valuable. E.g. When lumber is made into furniture form utility is created. This is production, not marketing. However, marketing contributes to decisions on colour, style, and size of furniture. Place utility occurs when the product is readily accessible to potential customers. So, physically moving a product to a store near the customer adds value. Time utility means having a product available when you want it. E.g. Prospective buyers can visit the eBay Internet site for online shopping at their convenient time.

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Information utility is created by informing prospective buyers that a product exists. Unless you know a product and where you can get it, product has no value. Image utility is the emotional or psychological value that a person attaches to a product or brand because of its reputation or social standing. Image utility is associated with prestige or high-status products such as designer clothes, luxury automobiles, or certain residential neighbourhoods (DHA). Possession utility is created when a customer buys the productthat is ownership is transferred to the buyer and there is potential exchange.

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Creating Customer Loyalty & Retention Losing customers does not mean losing a single sale but in fact losing the entire stream of purchases that the customer would make over a lifetime. Customer lifetime value: The value of the entire stream of purchases that a customer would make over a lifetime of patronage. Companies should not just acquire customers, but keep & grow them as well. The ultimate aim of customer relationship management is to produce high customer equity. Customer Equity is the total combined customer lifetime values of all the companys current & potential customers. It is a better measure of a firms performance than current sales or market share. More Loyal firms Profitable customers Higher firms Customer Equity
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Building Right Relationships with Right Customers


Which customers should the company acquire & retain? The company can classify customers according to their potential profitability & projected loyalty , and manage its relationships with them accordingly. Customer Relationship Groups Strangers . Butterflies . True Friends . Barnacles . Low profitability/ Less Loyal. Profitable/ not Loyal Profitable/ Loyal Not Profitable/ Highly Loyal

Different types of customers require different relationship strategies, therefore the goal is to : Build right relationships with the right customers

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Customer Relationship Groups

Butterflies

True Friends Good fit between companys offerings & customer needs; Highest profit potential

High Profitability

Good fit between companys offerings & customer needs; High profit potential

Strangers

Barnacles Limited fit between companys offerings & customer needs;

Low Profitability

Little fit between companys offerings & customer needs; Lowest profit potential

Low profit potential

Short- term customers

Long-term customers
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Projected Loyalty

Partner Relationship Management Working closely with partners in other departments of the organisation and outside the company to jointly bring greater value to customers. Partners Inside the Company Every employee must be customer-focused. Every department or function in the organisation should form strong linkage to create and deliver customer value e.g. P & G customer development teams Marketing Partners Outside the Firm Most enterprises are networked companies, relying heavily on partnerships with other firms. Marketing channel consists of distributors, retailers, and others who connect the company to its buyers. the supply chain describes a longer channel, stretching from raw materials to components to final products that are carried to final buyers. Through supply chain management many companies are strengthening their connections with partners. Therefore successful companies, not only, treat suppliers as vendors and distributors as customers, but also, as partners in delivering customer value. e.g. Lexus works with suppliers to improve quality & operations efficiency and with its franchise dealers to provide sales & service support that leads to strong customer loyalty.
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Customer Value Proposition(CVP) To succeed in a business, a marketer must offer the right product, to the targeted customers at a price that is acceptable to them, bases on their perception of value at a cost that allows the enterprise to be profitable. This is known as CVP and is the fundamental premise that underpins all marketing activities.
Therefore, a CVP expresses what an organisation( or part of an organisation) is all about. It should: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define customer needs that the firm is trying to meet. Identify at whom it is targeting its activities. state why the firm is different from the competition. explain the benefit difference to customers. Indicate how the firm will provide its offerings.

A CVP serves as a framework within which to orient your business.


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The value proposition is the set of benefits or values a company promises to deliver to customers to satisfy their needs.
CVP Examples For a Corner Shop to provide a small selection of consumer goods in a convenient location with convenient opening timings and friendly local service, therefore allowing a higher price to be charged. For a Retail Bank, to provide a place for customers to deposit securely and subsequently disburse conveniently their funds. Fast food outlet, to provide value for money, food and drinks of consistent quality globally, served quickly in a friendly manner to younger people and families. A large organisation, would have more than one CVP, depending on its customers, e.g.; a large bank would probably have one for retail, corporate, financial institutions and offshore clientele etc.

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Quality Delighting the customers by fully meeting their needs and expectations. These may include product performance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost Total Quality management Programmes designed to constantly improve the quality of products, services and marketing processes. Quality in every process and quality in every employee behaviour & work. 1.TQM emphasizes increasing quality and developing an effective organisation. 2. TQM is concerned with customer satisfaction and employee motivation. 3. TQM relies on leadership and co-operation versus the traditional management focus on closely supervising employee behaviour. 4. TQM businesses constantly look for new and improved ways to complete their work to increase effectiveness and quality. 5. TQM encourages teamwork and employee involvement in decision making. 6. TQM businesses view employees as valuable contributors to success and use training to improve employee effectiveness and motivation.
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Main forces in a modern marketing system

Company (marketer)

Suppliers

Marketing intermediaries

End User market

Competitors

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Defining Marketing: Marketing can be defined from several points of view. Economic Perspective A social process or force that directs the flow of goods & services from producers to consumers in such a way as to match supply & demand and thereby accomplish the objectives of society. Two scientific marketing functions promotion & distribution are taken into consideration. Business Perspective Business firms also think like economists but they add additional things for marketing function. Designing the product or service that is offered and the setting the price at which it is offered; referred to as Marketing Mix, the heart of modern marketing within an enterprise.

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Customer Perspective: Peter Drucker, Marketing is the whole business seen from the point of view of its final result; from the customers point of view. That is a company is likely to remain in business if it continues to satisfy its customers. And satisfying customers-at a profit-is what marketing all about. Marketing is the creation and delivery of standard of living.

Social Perspective: The role of marketing has been greatly expanded for social concern & change. For instance, a function within Not-for-profit organisations, hospitals, schools, political campaigns, charity; a force for social change. Smoking is injurious to health.
Therefore, marketing is helping to build a better society, one that is more responsive to the needs of its entire people and that is more concerned about the future.

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Definitions of Marketing: Chartered Institute of Marketing UK The strategic business function that creates value by stimulating, facilitating and fulfilling customer demandit does this by building brands, nurturing innovation, developing relationships, creating good customer service and communicating benefits. (Recently Proposed)

Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably. (2009)
Getting the right products, to the right people, in the right place, at the right time, at the right price, with the right level of communication profitably. American Marketing Association Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.(November 2008)
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American Marketing Association Marketing is an organisational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organisation and its stakeholders.( September 2004) Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational goals.(1998) Marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and distribute want-satisfying products to target markets in order to achieve organisational objectives. ( William J. Stanton)

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These definitions suggest that marketers are involved into four functions: (1) planning products or services, (2) pricing, (3) promotion, and (4) distribution. These are the elements of Marketing Mix. Therefore, Marketing is the function or department within an organisation that is responsible for planning and implementing the marketing mix.

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Definitions of Marketing
Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products and services of value with others.(1994) Philip Kotler Marketing is the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong relationships in order to capture value from customers in return, (2010) Philip Kotler

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Marketing Creating & Capturing Value

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The Marketing Process


Understand Marketplace and Customer Needs & Wants Design a Customer-Driven Market Strategy Construct a Marketing Programme

Build Profitable Relationships

Capture value from Customers

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The Marketing Process - I

Research Consumers and the Marketplace Understand Customer Needs and Wants

Manage Marketing Information and Customer Data

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The Marketing Process II

Design a Customer-driven Marketing Strategy

Select consumers to serve Market Segmentation and Targeting Value proposition differentiation and positioning

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The Marketing Process III

Construct a Marketing Programme that delivers superior value

PRODUCT and Service Design Build Strong Brands PRICE create real value PLACE manage demand and supply chain PROMOTION create the value proposition

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The Marketing Process IV

Customer Relationship Management with chosen customers Build Profitable Relationships Product Relationship Management with chosen suppliers

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The Marketing Process V

Capturing Value from Customers in return

Generate Revenue, Earn Profit Create loyal, satisfied customers Capture Customer Lifetime Value Increase Market Share

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So, What Is Marketing? Pulling It All Together

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Product or Offering

Any thing tangible (good) or intangible (service) that satisfies a need or want. For instance
Goods, pharmaceuticals, consumer, electronic, industrial, agro chemicals. Services, doctors, lawyers, teachers, an air flight. Persons, music group, e.g Hadiqa Kayani. Places, Chitral, Murree, Lal Sohanra Park Properties, Real estate, (Houses), Financial, (shares) Time-based events, T20 World Cup, Music Concerts, Fashion Shows, Exhibitions Information, IUB educational Programmes Ideas, Smoking is injurious to health. Organisation, Corporate identity ads Nestle Pure Life. Experiences, Dream world, Disney Land, Country Club,

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Marketing Mix (4Ps) Marketing is all about giving the costumers what he wants. This encapsulates: (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion). This combination of 4Ps is used as a mean/ tool to satisfy target market customers & at the same time achieving the organisations marketing objectives i.e. Commercial (Sales) & Financial (Profit) objectives.

Product, the properties or characteristics of good or service. Customer benefits , Quality , design , technical features, brand name, packaging, service, warranties, sizes, training. Price, right price and value (CVP), List price, discounts, allowances, payment period, credit terms, bundling items, or pricing separately, lump sum or piece rate, rebates or loyalty schemes, undersell the competition. Place, availability getting your product in front of your costumers, through distribution channels or supply chains, Coverage, location, inventory, transport Promotion, informing customers in a manner that they understand your product, Advertising (TV, internet, newspaper, F.M Radio) Direct marketing (direct mail), sales force (personal selling), exhibitions sponsoring events, items, PR, brochures and catalogues
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4Ps of Marketing Mix

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4Cs of Marketing Mix

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Marketing Relationship between 4Ps & 4Cs

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4Vs of Marketing Mix 1. Validity - This model says you should not only develop products according to consumers needs but also consider other environment factors like environmental friendly, safety and social security. 2. Value - This model talks beyond price and lowest cost. It says you should provide value for money because now days living standards of many consumers are raising. 3. Venue - It says you should not only provide product or services on the convenient places but also provide your services at the venue or home of consumers like pizza home delivery. 4. Vogue - It requires not only two way communication but your promotion should be in favor Of public and accepted by the public.

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Marketing Evolution (in US)

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Marketing Philosophies/Evolution of Marketing


Production concept: (Mass Production) (prior to 1920s): Mass produce @ lowest cost -Distribute @ affordable price. No options for consumer The idea that consumers will favour products that are available and highly affordable and the organisation should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. E.g. Chinese goods. Product concept: (1920s): Build a More Innovative Product, Build a Better Mousetrap The idea that consumers will favour products that offer the most quality, performance, and features and that the organisation should therefore devote its energy to making continuous product improvements. What if the product is not needed by anyone? Selling concept: (1930) Few product-- sell, sell, sell!; Largest volume at any price, Focus on one time transaction. The idea that consumers will not buy enough of the firms product unless it undertakes a large scale selling and promotion effort. Therefore, for people to buy products, you have to do a lot of advertising. Can good advertising sell a bad product? (Good Milk)

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Components and outcomes of the Marketing Concept

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Marketing Concept:(1950s and beyond) Sam Walton(Wal-Mart) There is only one boss : the customer. The marketing management philosophy holds that achieving organisational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of the target markets and delivering the desired satisfaction better than competitors do. Therefore, Marketing concept emphasizes customer orientation and coordination of all marketing activities to achieve the organisations performance objectives. The marketing concept is based on three beliefs. 1. All planning and operations should be customeroriented. That is every department and employee should be focused on contributing to the satisfaction of customers need. 2. All marketing activities in an organisation should be coordinated. This means all the marketing efforts should be designed and combined in a coherent , consistent way, and that one executive should have overall authority and responsibility for complete set of marketing activities. 3. Customer-oriented, coordinated marketing is essential to achieve the organisations performance objectives. The ultimate objective for a business is measured in terms of ROI, stock price and market capatilisation.

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Societal Marketing Concept

Society Society (Human Welfare) (Human Welfare)

Societal Marketing Concept


Consumers (Want Satisfaction) Company (Profits)
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Societal Marketing Concept: Typical thinking in 1990 Marketer must act in a socially responsible manner. Marketing with a social conscience and care about the society in general. The idea that a companys marketing decisions should consider consumers wants, the companys requirements, consumers long-run interests, and societys long-run interests. E.g., PSO Tree Plantation drive, UBL Insurance Example: A fashion retailer have several markets to satisfy, the owners or stakeholders, the employee who make the clothing, and the third world economies that would be affected if the jobs were not available. The marketing concept and companys social responsibility are compatible if management strives over the long run to satisfy the wants of its product buying customers, meet the societal needs of others affected by the firms activities, and achieve the companys performance objectives.
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Contrast between Selling & Marketing The Selling Concept takes an inside-out view that focuses on existing products and heavy selling. The aim is to sell what the company makes rather than making what the customer wants.
Emphasis is on the product. Company first makes the product then figures out how to sell it. Management is sales volumeoriented. Planning is short-run oriented, in terms of todays products & markets. Needs of seller are stressed.

The Marketing Concept takes an outside-in view that focuses on satisfying customer needs as a path to profits.
Emphasis is on customers needs and wants. Company first determines the customers wants and then figures out how to make and deliver a product to satisfy those wants. Management is profit-oriented. Planning is long-run oriented, in terms of new products, tomorrows markets, and future growth. Wants of buyers are stressed.

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Marketing Orientation Customer Orientation

Focus on Long-term Profitability

Competitor Orientation Target Market


Elements of a firms marketing orientation

Interfunctional Coordination

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Marketing Orientation (Adopting Marketing Concept Philosophy) Marketing orientation requires all the staff & departments of an organisation to think customer and to work together to create value, and to satisfy customer needs and expectations better than the competition. Customer orientation: An organisation must have a thorough understanding of its target buyers, so that it can create a product of superior value for them. Remember that value can be defined only by customers themselves, and can be created by increasing the benefits to the buyer in relation to the buyers costs or by decreasing the buyers costs in relation to the buyers benefits. A customer orientation requires that a company understand not only the present value to the customer, but also how this is likely to evolve over time. Competitor orientation: As well as focusing on its customers, a firm should look at how well its competitors are able to satisfy buyers needs. It should understand the short-term strengths and weaknesses and long-term capabilities and strategies of current and potential competitors.
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Inter-functional coordination: It is futile for marketing managers to develop marketing plans that are not acted upon by people who are capable of delivering promises made to customers. Many individuals within an organisation have a responsibility for creating valuenot just marketing staffand a marketing orientation requires that the organisation draw upon and integrate its human and physical resources effectively and adapt them to meet customers needs.

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The Changing Marketing Landscape/ Future Trends in Marketing The Digital Age Dramatic changes are occurring in the marketing arena. The boom in computers, telecommunications, information, and transportation has created exciting new ways to learn about and track customers, and to create products and services tailored to individual customer needs. Rise of internet users (1.2 billion, expected to reach 3.4 billion by 2015) globally, e-commerce, online shopping, and electronic social media pose new challenges and offer exciting marketing opportunities. Thats why, online marketing is now the fast growing form of marketing, and the digital media must be fully integrated into the marketers customer relationship building efforts.

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Rapid Globalisation The world is considered a global village. In an increasingly smaller world, many marketers are now connected globally with their customers and international marketing partners. Today, almost every company, large or small, is touched in some way by global competition. Today, managers around the globe are recognising the fact that markets are becoming increasingly international in nature. To achieve sustainable growth in global markets and to survive in domestic markets that are increasingly attacked by international players; todays marketers must develop the skills, aptitudes, and knowledge necessary to compete in global arena. The Call for More Ethics and Social Responsibility Todays marketers are re-examining their ethical and social responsibilities. Marketers are being called upon to take greater responsibility for the social and environmental impact of their actions. Any poor action can affect customer relationships. Therefore, marketers seek ways to profit by serving the best longrun interests of their customers and communities.
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The Growth of Not-for-Profit Marketing In the past , marketing has been most widely applied in forprofit business sector. In recent years, however, marketing also has become a major part of the strategies of many notfor-profit organisations, such as colleges, hospitals, museums, zoos, and even religious institutions. An NGO/ not-for-profit organisation may face stiff competition for support and membership. Sound marketing can help attract membership and support. ( SKMCH&RC Lahore in 1984 was established following an extensive local and international marketing campaigns that raised record amount of a billion rupees in cash and kind and the govt donated a 20-acre piece of land. Continue to benefit poor patients by doing fund-raising campaigns, coin collection boxes., Zakat campaign, Give Zakat, Give Hope. ) Core Message of Marketing Build strong customer relationships.
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The Worlds Most Valuable Brands in 2009 Brand Value ($bn)

Coca Cola IBM Microsoft GE Nokia McDonalds Google Toyota Intel Disney Source: Interbrand

68.73 60.21 56.65 47.78 34.86 32.28 31.98 31.33 30.64 28.45

A brand is a cluster of functional and emotional values that enables organisations to make a promise about a unique and welcomed experience.
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The Most Valuable Global Brands 2012


Rank 2011 1 2 3 4 Rank change Rank 2012 0 1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Category Tech Tech Tech Fast Food Brand Apple IBM Google McDonald's Brand Value 2012 ($M) 182,951 155,985 107, 857 95,188

5
6 8 7

0
0 7 8

5
6 7 8

Tech
Soft drinks Tobacco

Microsoft
Coca-Cola Marlboro

76,651
74,286 73,612 68,870

Communicati AT&T on Provide Communicati Verizon on Provider

13

49,151

10

10

Communicati China Mobile 47,041 on Provider


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