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PENGUJIAN HIPOTESIS

STATISTIK: Uji-Z, Uji-t, Uji-F


SUJARWO, SP., MP
Ingat kembali ruang ruang penerimaan dan
penolakan hipotesis
Two-tailed Test
H
0
: =
H
1
: =
o is divided equally between
the two tails of the critical
region
Means less than or greater than
INFERENSI TERHADAP RATA-RATA
POPULASI
Tujuan pengujian untuk mengetahui apakah
rata-rata sampel sudah mewakili populasinya.

Ukuran Sampel :
Besar : lebih dari 30 data Uji-Z. Jika Zhit > Ztab
maka Ho ditolak dan Ha di terima, sebaliknya jika
Zhit < Ztab maka Ha ditolak dan Ho diterima
Kecil : Kurang dari 30 data (untuk keperluan praktis).
Uji-t .
Contoh 2: Uji-Z
Rata-rata hasil produksi mesin lama adalah 2200 kg/
hari. Sebuah mesin baru diuji dalam 200 hari, ternyata
hasil produksinya menyebar secara normal dengan rata-
rata produksi 2280 kg/ hari dan standart deviasi 520 kg/
hari. Apakah produktifitas mesin baru lebih baik dari
mesin lama ?

Hipotesis : H
0
: = 2200
H
1
: = 2200
Pengujian dilakukan dengan uji Z
Uji Z Kasus 1:
200 520
2200 2280
0
/
n /
x
hit
z

=
o

=
Menghitung Z-Hitung :
Z-hitung = 2,715
Z-tabel = 1,96 - alpha = 0,05 (two tailed)

Karena Z hitung lebih besar dari Z tabel maka Ho di tolak dan
diterima H1.

Kesimpulan : Produktifitas mesin yang baru lebih tinggi dari yang
lama.
Increasing sample size
S
2
closer to
2
t statistic



Critical value of t
Depends on sample size
Df
Significant level was chosen by
researcher
( ) ( )
M
s
M
n
s
M
t

=

=
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
X
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Y
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
X
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Y
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
X
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Y
t-distribution with 2, 5, 10, 30 df
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
X
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Y
Uji statistik : Uji-t
Critical Values of t
Proportion in one tail 0.25 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005
Proportion in two tails
df
0.5 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01
1 1.000 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.656
2 0.816 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925
3 0.765 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841
4 0.741 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604
5 0.727 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032
10 0.700 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169
15 0.691 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947
20 0.687 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845
25 0.684 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787
30 0.683 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750
50 0.679 1.299 1.676 2.009 2.403 2.678
100 0.677 1.290 1.660 1.984 2.364 2.626
1000 0.675 1.282 1.646 1.962 2.330 2.581
1000000 0.674 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576

Hypothesis testing with the t
statistic
Basic form
Steps
State H
0
and H
1

Set o level
Determine critical value of t
One or twotailed hypothesis
o level
df.
Calculate t value
Evaluate H
0

error standard estimated
H from mean population - data from mean sample
0
= t
Computation




( ) ( )
M
s
M
n
s
M
t

=

=
( )
1 1
2
2
2

=


n
n
X
X
n
SS
s
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) 1
2
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|


n n
n
X
X
M
n
s
M
s
M
t
M

Example 1:
Diketahui produktifitas kedelai di suatu daerah
rata-rata adalah 12 kwt/ha. Diambil sampel 15
responden. Apakah rerata sampel sama dengan
populasi ?

H
0
: = 12, H
1
: = 12
= .01, df = 15 - 1 = 14

Critical t(14) = 2.977

Diketahui : Rerata sampel = 11.2
standart deviasi = 3.255




X X2
12 144
13 169
6 36
11 121
12 144
8 64
11 121
7 49
10 100
16 256
10 100
7 49
14 196
15 225
16 256
168 2030
X
2
X

8406
873 3
2558 3
15
2558 3
.
.
. .
n
s
s
M
= = = =
( )
95166 .
8406 .
8 .
8406 .
12 2 . 11
=

=
M
s
M
t

Critical t(14) = 2.977
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
X
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Y
Gimana kesimpulannya ????
Example 2:
Produktifitas padi rata-rata
menghasilkan 67 kwt/ ha. Dan ada
teknologi baru dengan data sampel
berikut:

H
0
: = 67, H
1
: = 67
= .05, df = 15 - 1 = 14
Critical t(14) = 2.145
8 . 71
15
1077
= = M
( )
422.4 77,328.6 751 , 77
15
1,159,929
751 , 77
15
1077
77751
2
2
2
= =
= = =

N
X
X SS
X X2
65 4225
76 5776
69 4761
71 5041
74 5476
78 6084
77 5929
68 4624
72 5184
75 5625
74 5476
64 4096
69 4761
63 3969
82 6724
1077 77751
30.171
1 15
422.4
1
2
=

=
n
SS
s
5.493 30.171
2
= = = s s
1.418
873 . 3
5.493
15
30.171
2
= = = =
n
s
s
M
( )
3.38
1.418
8 . 4
1.418
67 8 . 71
= =

=
M
s
M
t

thit = 3.3845

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
X
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Y
Gimana kesimpulannya ????
Uji Statistik : Uji-F
For cases in which two population variances are to be
compared, the F statistic is commonly used.
Test
Statistic: F = s
1
2
/ s
2
2


where s
1
2
and s
2
2
are the sample variances.

The more this ratio deviates from 1, the stronger the evidence
for unequal population variances.

H
0
: o1 = o2
Ha: o1 = o2
The hypothesis that the two standard deviations are equal is
rejected if:
Example:
Method Mean (ppm)
Standard
Deviation (ppm)
1 6.7 0.8
2 8.2 1.2
As an example, assume we want to see if a method (Method 1) for measuring
the arsenic concentration in soil is significantly more precise
than a second method (Method 2).
Each method was tested ten times, with, yielding the following values:
Since s
2
> s
1
, F
calc
= s
2
2
/s
1
2
= 1.2
2
/0.8
2
= 2.25. The tabulated value
for d.o.f. = 9 in each case, and a 1-tailed, 95% confidence level is
F
9,9
= 3.179. In this case, F
calc
< F
9,9
, so we accept the null
hypothesis that the two standard deviations are equal, and we are
95% confident that any difference in the sample standard deviations
is due to random error. We use a 1-tailed test in this case because
the only information we are interested in is whether Method 1 is
more precise than Method 2.
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