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AAKG Security Solutions

IP Addressing
Siddharth Jain

Contents

IP addressing (introduction)

Types of addressing schemes

IPv4

Classes

IPv6

Types of allocation

Static Dynamic

Knowing your IP

Knowing a servers IP hosting a domain


Connection to the connecting router

IP Addressing

Routers use layer 3 addressing and routing tables Transferring data between layer 3 requires common protocol.

Most commonly used protocol Internet Protocol


A layer 3 address, with reference to OSI model Logical address given by the network admin Addressing schemes IPv4 IPv6

Types of addressing schemes


IPv4 IPv6

Types of addressing Schemes (IPv4)


32 bit address For simplification and utility, divided into 4 octets of 8 bit each Approximately 4.3 billion unique addresses Different classes signify network bits and hosts bits, allocated in different order

Classes (IPv4)

Class A has an 8 bit NETID and a 24 bit HOSTID. There are only 126 possible Class A addresses. intended for use in very large networks since the 24 bit HOSTID can uniquely identify over 16 million hosts Class B

have a 16 bit NETID and a 16 bit HOSTID


intended for moderate sized networks 64000 unique hosts can ne added Class C a 24 bit NETID and an 8 bit HOSTID are intended for small sub networks Class D are used for multicast applications such as the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol

Class E addresses begin with a number between 240 and 255 and are used for experimental purposes.

Types of addressing schemes (IPv6)


128 bit address Hexadecimal notation Introduced due to exhaustion of IPv4 addresses 3.4 X 1038 unique addresses IPv6 addresses consist of eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons Example 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334

Types of IP address allocation

Static IP Addressing
It is constant, i.e. permanently assigned to the user More reliable Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) To host a gaming website

In contrast a static IP address can become a security risk, because the address is always the same.
Static IP addressing is less cost effective than Dynamic IP Addressing.

Types of IP addressing

Dynamic IP Addressing
less security risk as the computer is assigned a new IP address each time the host logs on
they are cost effective, automatic network configuration Dynamic addressing used by ISP's so that one IP address can be assigned to different users in different sessions Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns each host attached to the router an IP address automatically Dynamic IP addressing preferred less for VOIP, VPN or game hosting because it is less reliable then Static IP addressing.

To know your IP

Go to start menu, type cmd, hit enter On the promt, type ipconfig/all

Connection to the connecting router


Go to start menu, type cmd, hit enter On the promt, type ping -t

To know the hosting server of any domain


Go to start menu, type cmd, hit enter On the promt, type nslookup domain name

Queries?