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Electrical Standards

MODULE 10

Hazard Brainstorming
Where are electrical hazards on oil and gas well sites?

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Statistics
Electrocution: Among most frequent causes of occupational injury death in US 295 fatalities/year; 4309 lost time 1992-2002: 9% decrease Most frequent cause: Overhead power lines
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Factors in Fatal Electrocutions


Safe work practices implemented and followed? Adequate/required PPE provided and worn? Lockout/tagout procedures implemented and followed? OSHA, NEC, NESC compliance? Worker and supervisor training adequate? (from NIOSH)
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Types of Electrical Injuries


Electrocution (death due to electrical shock) Electrical shock Burns (ugly pictures here) Falls

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Hazard Recognition
How can you sense electrical danger?
Cannot see, smell, taste, or hear danger Can recognize unsafe conditions

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Electrical Terminology
Current movement of electrical charge Resistance opposition to current flow Voltage measure of electrical force Conductors substances with little resistance to electricity (such as metals) Insulators substances with high resistance to electricity (such as wood, rubber, glass, & bakelite) Grounding a conductive connection to the earth (which acts as a protective measure)
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Electrical Shock
Received when current passes through body Severity depends on:
Path of current through body Amount of current flowing through body Length of time body is in circuit Also: voltage, moisture, heart cycle, health

Low voltage is NOT low hazard!


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Dangers of Electrical Shock


Currents >75 mA* can cause ventricular fibrillation (rapid, ineffective heartbeat)
mA = milliampere = 1/1,000 of an ampere Death within minutes unless a defibrillator is used 75 mA is not much current (a small power drill uses 30 times as much)

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Effects of Current on Body


1 mA: Perception level, slight tingling. 5 mA: Slight shock; not painful.
Can usually let go. Involuntary reactions can cause injuries.

6-30 mA: Painful shock


Muscular control lost Freezing current or let-go range
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Effects of Current on Body


50-150 mA: Extreme pain
Respiratory arrest; cannot let go Death possible

1000-4300 mA: Ventricular fibrillation


Muscular contraction; nerve damage Death likely

10000 mA: Cardiac arrest


Severe burns, probable death
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How Shock Happens


Connection between:
2 wires of energized circuit 1 wire of energized circuit and ground Metallic part in contact with energized wire and ground

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Inadequate Wiring Hazards


What happens when a wire is too small to carry the current safely?
Overheating Risk of fire or short circuit Fuse acts as sacrificial weak link Fuse too strong? Other parts of the system break first
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Wire Gauge

WIRE

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29 CFR 1910 and 29 CFR 1926


1910 Subpart S = Electrical
Revised 2/14/2007; effective in 180 days

1910 Subpart I = PPE


1910.137 Electrical Protective Devices

1926 Subpart K = Electrical Protect against recognized hazards

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Other Standards
NFPA 70E enacted to help meet CFR
Revised Subpart S based heavily on 2000 version 2004 version now published OSHA chose which provisions of 70E to adopt

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29 CFR 1910 Subpart S


Electrical standards for general industry 302-308 and 399 updated: PM App. C 5 main groups of standards:

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Design safety standards 302-330 Safety-related work practices 331-360 Reserved: maintenance, special equipment Definitions: 399
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1910.302 Electric utilization systems (PM Appendix C)


Applicability of regulations
By type of installation By installation date

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General

1903.303

1910.303 (a) Approval


Conductors and equipment acceptable only if approved
Note: If installation is made in accordance with NEC or ANSI/NFPA it will be deemed in compliance. See definitions

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1910.303(b) Examination, installation, and use of equipment


Examination shall be free of recognized hazards
Suitability (check listing/labeling) Other factors listed in regulation

Installation and use by instructions Insulation integrity Interrupting rating (fuses, breakers)
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1910.303(b) Examination, installation, and use of equipment


Circuit impedance Deteriorating agents water, gases, excessive temperature, corrosives Mechanical execution of work

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Close unused openings for protection Conductors racked for safe access Internal parts not contaminated No damaged parts
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1910.303(b) Examination, installation, and use of equipment


Mounting and cooling
Firmly secured Air circulation; clearance Ventilation openings not obstructed

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1910.303(c) Electrical connections


General dissimilar metals Terminals connections Splices correctly performed, insulated

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1910.303(d) Arcing parts


Some electrical equipment normally produces arcs, sparks, flames, molten metal Keep isolated from combustible material

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1910.303(e) Marking
Manufacturer and ratings must be marked
Voltage, current, wattage, etc. Durable markings in environment

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1910.303(f) Disconnecting means and circuits


Legibly marked to indicate purpose
Unless purpose is evident

Durable Able to be locked open Series combination rating = special marking

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Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

1910.303(g) 600 Volts, nominal, or less


1. Space about electric equipment
Space, not used for storage Guarded when parts exposed Entrances Illumination Headroom Control boards in dedicated, protected space
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1910.303(g) 600 Volts, nominal, or less


2. Guarding of live parts
Live parts 50 volts protected from people Protection from damage Warning signs for unqualified persons

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1910.303(h) Over 600 volts, nominal


2. 3. 4. 5. Enclosure / access control Work space about equipment Entrance and access to work space Working space and guarding

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Wiring Design and Protection

1903.304

1910.304(a) Use and identification of grounding conductors


1. Grounded & equipment grounding conductors identifiable & distinguishable
Grounded = white or gray Equipment grounding = green, or green with yellow strips, or bare

2. Polarity may not be reversed 3. Grounding devices not used for other purposes
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Polarity
Reversed polarity: Neutral (grounded) conductor connected to hot (ungrounded) terminal incorrectly Most common on smaller branch circuits
120 V receptacle outlets Cord- and plug-connected equipment
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Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

1910.304(b) Branch circuits


1. Identification of multiwire branch circuits
For >1 voltage system in a building ID phase and system Permanently posted at each panelboard

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1910.304(b) Branch circuits


2. Receptacles and cord connectors
i. Grounding type for 15A & 20A circuits
Receptacles only on circuits matching voltage and current rating Except portable / vehicle-mounted generators Except replacement receptacles

ii. Grounding contacts grounded


iii. Grounding contact connected to equipment grounding conductor


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1910.304(b) Branch circuits


2. Receptacles and cord connectors
iv. Replacement of receptacles
Grounding-type where grounding means exists GFCI where required Options for lack of grounding means

v. Plugs not interchangeable for different voltage, frequency, type of current

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1910.304(b) Branch circuits


3. Ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)
i. Bathroom or rooftops ii. Temporary wiring:
Including extension cords If unavailable for less-usual type of receptacle: assured equipment grounding conductor program.

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1910.304(b) Branch circuits


4. Outlet devices
i. Heavy-duty lampholders for >20A ii. Receptacle outlets:
Receptacle ampere rating branch circuit For 2 outlets on branch circuit: Table S-4

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1910.304(b) Branch circuits


For 2 outlets on branch circuit: Table S-5 50 A: receptacle branch-circuit rating

5. Cord connections: Outlet where flexible cords with plugs used


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1910.304(c) Outside conductors, 600 volts, nominal, or less


Clearance 1. Power conductors on poles 2. Clearance of open conductors from ground:

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10 feet above sidewalk, grade, platform 12 feet vehicular traffic 15 feet truck traffic 18 feet public streets, alleys, driveways
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1910.304(c) Outside conductors, 600 volts, nominal, or less


3. Clearance from building openings
No outer jacket: 3 foot clearance, except above window Not beneath or obstructing openings where materials may be moved

4. Above roofs: 8 ft above, 3 ft from edge



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Pedestrians? Platform Exceptions for slope, attachment


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1910.304(d) Location of outdoor lamps


d. Location of outdoor lamps
Under energized equipment unless
Equipment can be locked out or Clearance/other safeguards adequate

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1910.304(e) Services
Disconnecting means
Main switch disconnects all, indicates on/off Accessible only to qualified; warning signs

Services over 600 volts, nominal

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1910.304(f) Overcurrent protection


1. 600 volts, nominal, or less
i. Protect conductors and equipment iv. Overcurrent devices readily accessible
To employees & building management Not exposed to damage or ignitable material

v. Located/shielded to avoid injury/burns vi. On/off position clearly indicated vii. Vertical: up = on

2. Special rules for over 600 volts


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1910.304(g) Grounding
1. Systems to be grounded
i. ii. iii. iv. 3-wire DC: neutral conductor 2-wire DC, >50V-300V, with exceptions AC <50V in certain cases AC 50V-1000V (unless exempt) under 4 conditions v. Exemptions for AC 50V-1000V

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1910.304(g) Grounding
2. Conductor to be grounded 3. Portable and vehicle-mounted generators: frame as grounding electrode 4. Grounding connections 5. Grounding path: permanent, continuous, effective
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Grounding
One conductor of the circuit intentionally grounded to earth Protects circuit from lightning or other high voltage contact Stabilizes the voltage in the system so expected voltage levels are not exceeded under normal conditions
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Grounding
Metal frames / enclosures of equipment grounded by permanent connection or bond Equipment grounding conductor provides path for dangerous fault current to return to ground If damage, corrosion, loosening, etc. impairs continuity, shock and burn hazards will develop
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Grounding Path
Shall have capacity to conduct safely any likely fault current. Fault currents may be many times normal currents; can melt points of poor conductivity High temperatures = hazard; can destroy ground-fault path
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1910.304(g) Grounding
6. Supports, enclosures, equipment
vi. Exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of cord- and plug-connected equipment

7. Nonelectrical equipment 8. Methods of grounding fixed equipment 9. Grounding of systems and circuits 1000 volts and over (high voltage)
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Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs)


GFCI overcurrent device like a fuse or circuit breaker Designed to sense an imbalance in current flow over the normal path Opens circuit if current in hot and grounded wires differ by 5mA 1mA Must be installed correctly and tested
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1903.305

Wiring Methods, Components, and Equipment for General Use

1910.305(a) Wiring methods


Not applicable to factory-assembled 1. General requirements
i. Metal parts as grounding conductors: effectively bonded ii. Internal insulated grounding conductor for isolated enclosure iii. No wiring systems in ventilation ducts

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1910.305(a) Wiring methods


2. Temporary wiring

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Restricted uses Removed after project completion Requirements for feeders and branch circuits Grounding receptacles No bare conductors or earth returns Disconnecting switches
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1910.305(a) Wiring methods


2.Temporary wiring, continued
Lamps protected from contact or breakage Flexible cords protected from damage Cables supported

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1910.305(b) Cabinets, boxes, and fittings


1. Conductors entering boxes, cabinets, or fittings
Must be protected from abrasion Openings must be closed, with or without wires running through Metal covers must be grounded

2. Covers and canopies

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>600V: complete, secure, marked enclosure


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1910.305(c) Switches
Gravity must not close switches Warning if power may still be available while switch is closed Faceplates where appropriate Grounding

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Switchboards, panelboards, and enclosures for damp locations


Switchboards and panelboards
Switchboards with exposed live parts: in dry places accessible only to qualified persons Panelboards: in enclosures with no live parts on front Switches dead when open

Enclosures for wet locations


Airspace, weatherproof
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1910.305(f) Conductors for general wiring


Insulated unless otherwise permitted Approved type for use Distinguishable by color or other means
Grounded Ungrounded Equipment grounding

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1910.305(g) Flexible cords and cables


In general much more easily damaged Should not be used if recognized options can be used instead Must be approved for conditions and location Allowable purposes listed

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1910.305(g) Flexible cords and cables


May not be substituted for fixed wiring May not be run through walls, ceilings, floors, doors, windows May not be attached to buildings May not be concealed in walls, ceilings, floors May not be spliced, except hard service #14 Strain relief needed on connections

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Flexible cords: Acceptable?


Short cord as part of a tool? Yes. Temporary use of extension cord for tool/appliance? Yes. Obviously not temporary? No. Extended over distance to avoid installing fixed outlet? No.

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1910.305(j) Equipment for general use


1. Lighting fixtures, lampholders, lamps, receptacles 2. Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (caps) 3. Appliances 4. Motors 5. Transformers 6. Capacitors 7. Storage batteries
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1903.306

Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations

1910.306 Specific purpose equipment and installations


a. Electric signs and outline lighting b. Cranes and hoists d. Electric weldersdisconnecting means g. Induction and dielectric

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Hazardous (Classified) Locations

1903.307

1910.307 Hazardous (classified) locations


Classification based on flammable vapors, liquids, gases, combustible dusts or fibers Each area considered individually Classified by classes and divisions or zones Documentation available for users, designers, installers, maintainers of electric equipment
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1910.307 Hazardous (classified) locations


Definitions of classes and divisions in 1910.399, Definitions
Class I: flammable gases/vapors; explosive or ignitable mixtures Class II: combustible dust Class III: easily ignitable fibers or flyings; not likely to be in suspension Division 1 & 2 for each; Zones 0-2 for Class I
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1910.307(c) Electrical installations


Equipment must be one of these:
Intrinsically safe Approved for hazardous (classified) location
Approved and marked for class and properties of material present

Safe for hazardous (classified) location


NFPA 70 referenced

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Conduits and equipment


d. Conduits: threaded, wrench-tight or bonding jumper e. Equipment in Division 2 locations:
Division 1 approved equipment = OK General-purpose equipment OK if demonstrably not a source of ignition

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1910.307(f) Protection techniques


Explosionproof apparatus Dust ignitionproof Dust-tight Purged and pressurized Nonincendive circuit Nonincendive equipment Nonincendive component Oil immersion Hermetically sealed Other protection techniques
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1910.307(g) Class I, Zone 0, 1, and 2 locations


Zone = alternative to divisions for Class 1 Classified by chemical properties and likelihood of combustible atmosphere Proper installation of conduit & equipment to avoid sparks in flammable/combustible atmosphere Protection techniques for certain zones
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1910.307(g) Class I, Zone 0, 1, and 2 locations


Special precaution: PE must classify areas and specify equipment Listing and marking:
Listed for Zone 0 = OK for Zone 1-2 Listed for Zone 1 = OK for Zone 2 (For same gas or vapor) Marking requirements & exemption

More information in NFPA 70


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1910.307(g) Class I, Zone 0

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Special Systems

1910.308

1910.308 Special systems


a. Systems over 600 volts, nominal b. Emergency power systems c. Remote control, signaling, and powerlimited circuits d. Fire alarm systems e. Communications systems f. Solar photovoltaic systems g. Integrated electrical systems
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Definitions

1910.399

1904.399 Definitions
New version supersedes older version in CFR book

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References for Further Information

1910 SUBPART S APPENDIX A

1910 Subpart S Appendix A


Nonmandatory references aid in understanding Not a substitute for compliance with CFR Appendices B and C removed

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Safety-Related Work Practices

1910.331-1910.335

1910.331 Scope
Qualified persons (who have training in avoiding the electrical hazards) Unqualified persons (with little or no such training) Working on or near:

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Premises wiring Wiring for connection to supply Other wiring Vehicles excluded
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1910.332 Training
a. Scope: employees with electric shock risk not reduced to safe level by installation requirements b. Training content:
Work practices for job assignments 1910.331-335 and others necessary Qualified vs. unqualified

c. Classroom or on-the-job; risk based


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Employees to be Trained
Electricians and welders Any others if:
work they do or supervise comes close enough to exposed parts of electric circuits 50V for hazard to exist

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1910.333

Selection and Use of Work Practices

1910.333 (a)(1) Deenergized parts


Live parts deenergized before employee works on or near them:
Unless infeasible or causes greater hazard <50V not deenergized if no increased exposure to burns or arcs Examples in CFR

If not deenergized, other work practices must protect employees


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1910.333(b) Working on or near exposed deenergized parts


If not locked out or tagged out, treated as energized Lockout/tagout rules followed in order 1910.147 provisions may also be OK Written copy of procedures available

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1910.333(b) Working on or near exposed deenergized parts


Lockout/tagout steps in section (2):
ii. iii. iv. v. Deenergizing equipment Application of locks and tags Verification of deenergized condition Reenergizing equipment after work

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1910.333(c) Working on or near exposed energized parts


Only qualified persons may work on energized electric circuit parts For work near overhead lines:
Lines deenergized and grounded, or Other protective measures provided

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Working near overhead power lines


Unqualified person near energized lines
Person and longest conductive object not closer than 10 ft, + 4 in/10kV above 50kV For elevated or ground work

Qualified person:
Closer approach only with insulation Table S-5: distance varies by voltage

Equipment: same distance as unqualified


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Working near overhead power lines


Equipment: same distance as unqualified, with exceptions:
In transit, structure lowered: 4 ft +4 in/10kV Insulating barriers, not part of vehicle Aerial lift, insulated, with qualified person Ground employees may not contact equipment without protection or distance Employees may not stand at grounding location when line contact possible
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1910.333(c) Working on or near exposed energized parts


4. Illumination must allow safe work may not reach blindly in 5. Confined space work requires protective insulation & secured doors 6. Conductive materials: prevent contact with energized parts 7. Portable ladders: nonconductive siderails
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1910.333(c) Working on or near exposed energized parts


8. Conductive apparel not worn, or insulated 9. Housekeeping near live parts:
Requires safeguards No conductive cleaning materials, including liquid solutions

10. Interlocks may only be defeated temporarily by qualified person


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Use of Equipment

1910.334

1910.334(a) Portable electric equipment


Handled in a manner to not cause damage Cords not used to raise/lower equipment Cords not stapled or hung in ways that damage insulation

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1910.334(a) Portable electric equipment


Visual inspection required before use:
Portable cord / plug connected equipment Extension cords For external defects and evidence of internal damage If not exposed to damage, only when relocated

Defect or damage: remove, do not use until repaired and tested Plug and receptacle checked for compatibility
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1910.334(a) Portable electric equipment


Grounding type equipment: ground must be maintained Conductive work locations (e.g. wet) require approved equipment and cords Connecting plugs:
Never plug or unplug live equipment with wet hands Protect hands from conductive path (water) Locking connectors: properly secured
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1910.334(b) Electric power and lighting circuits


Never reenergize a blown fuse Never reenergize a circuit breaker until it is safe (Overload or fault?) Never modify overcurrent protection beyond 304 requirements

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1910.334(c) and (d)


c. Test instruments and equipment
Only qualified persons may test electric circuits or equipment Test instruments must be visually inspected Must be rated for circuits & environment

d. Occasional use of flammable and ignitable materials: Do not use equipment that could ignite them
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1910.335

Safeguards for Personnel Protection

1910.335(a) Use of protective equipment


Personal protective equipment
Must be provided with & use equipment Maintained, inspected, and tested Insulating material protected Nonconductive head protection Eye or face protection for arcs, flashes, flying objects from explosions

Insulated tools or handling equipment Shields, insulation for heating/arcing


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1910.335(b) Alerting techniques


Techniques to warn and protect employees:
Safety signs and tags Barricades Attendants

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Relevant Standards Outside 29 CFR 1910


29 CFR 1926 Subpart K: construction API RP 54
Section 9.14 Generators, Motors, and Lighting Section 10: Drilling and Well Servicing Rig Electrical Systems

API RP 14F for offshore wiring API RP 500 and 505: area classification
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Clues that Electrical Hazards Exist


Tripped circuit breakers or blown fuses Warm tools, wires, cords, connections, or junction boxes GFCI that shuts off a circuit Worn or frayed insulation around wire or connection

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Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers

Subtitles & Transitions

FOR EXAMPLE

OSHA Resources
Pub 3075 Controlling Electrical Hazards Small Business Handbook section Inspection Procedures
Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices -Inspection Procedures and Interpretation Guidelines

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Interpretations
Training requirements for employees who perform non-electrical work on electrical equipment Qualifications for resetting circuits or replacing fuses; electrical enclosures must be approved Use of compressed air above 30 p.s.i. for cleaning purposes; nonmetallicsheathed cable for temporary wiring
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