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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

Dr. Indri Seta Septadina, M. Kes

Departemen Anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sriwijaya 2012


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Describe the gross and microanatomy of the reproductive systems, with the detailed functions of the systems.

. Organs of the Female Reproductive System (Fig. 337A) A. Ovarium B. Tuba uterina Genitalia Internae C. Uterus D. Vagina ---------------------------------------------------------E. Vulva F. Perineum Genitalia externae G. Gld. mammae

INTRODUCTION

Organ kelamin luar wanita memiliki 2 fungsi : Jalan masuk sperma ke dalam tubuh wanita Pelindung organ kelamin dalam dari organisme penyebab infeksi. Saluran kelamin wanita memiliki lubang yang berhubungan dengan dunia luar, sehingga mikroorganisme penyebab penyakit bisa masuk dan menyebabkan infeksi kandungan. Mikroorganisme ini biasanya ditularkan melalui hubungan seksual.

GENITALIA EXTERNAE
The vulva refers to those parts that are outwardly visible The vulva includes: Mons pubis Labia majora Labia minora Clitoris Urethral opening Vaginal opening Perineum

Individual differences in: Size Coloration Shape

MONS PUBIS
Jaringan

lemak dibawah kulit yg berbentuk seperti gunung segitiga Melindungi symphysis pubis Pengaruh hormon saat pubertas menyebabkan tumbuh rambut Variasi dalam jumlah, warna, ketebalan dan konsistensi (kasar/halus)

LABIA MAJORA

sama dengan skrotum pada pria Jaringan kulit yg terdiri dari kelenjar keringat dan kelenjar sebasea (penghasil minyak) + rambut setelah puber, labium mayor akan ditumbuhi rambut.Referred to as the outer lips Melindungi introitus vagina dan meatus urethrae Cenderung melunak semakin ber++usia

LABIA MINORA

Referred to as the inner lips Terdiri dari jaringan erectile, jar.ikat yg akan berubah warna dan menebal saat rangsangan seksual Terletak di sebelah dalam labia mayora Lebih sensitif dan responsif saat disentuh jk dibandingkan dgn labia majora Labia minora tightens during intercourse Karena kaya akan pembuluh darah, maka labium minora dan vagina tampak berwarna pink.

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CLITORIS

Labium minora kiri dan kanan bertemu di depan dan membentuk klitoris, yang merupakan penonjolan kecil yang sangat peka (sama dengan penis pada pria). Klitoris dibungkus oleh sebuah lipatan kulit yang disebut preputium (sama dengan kulit depan pada ujung penis pria). Klitoris sangat sensitif terhadap rangsangan dan bisa mengalami ereksi. Terdiri dari banyak jaringan syaraf, pembuluh darah dan jaringan erektil Key to sexual pleasure for most women Urethral opening is located directly below clitoris

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FEMALE

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VAGINAL OPENING INTROITUS VAGINAE


Lubang masuk vagina yang dilapisi oleh lapisan tipis disebut hymen Keberadaan hymen digunakan untuk menentukan virginity Beberapa wanita lahir tanpa hymen Hymen dapat robek oleh beberapa sebab selain aktifitas seksual Kekuatan himen pada setiap wanita bervariasi, karena itu pada saat pertama kali melakukan hubungan seksual, himen bisa robek atau bisa juga tidak.

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PERINEUM

Jaringan fibromuskuler diantara vagina dan anus. Kulit yang membungkus perineum dan labium mayo sama dengan kulit di bagian tubuh lainnya Melindungi bagian bawah dari organ urinarius dan tractus digestivus Terdiri dari banyak jaringan syaraf tepi sensitif bila tersentuh Lokasi episiotomy saat proses melahirkan untuk memperlebar jalan lahir

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INTERNAL GENITALIA
The

internal genitalia consists of the: Vagina Cervix Uterus Fallopian Tubes Ovaries

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VAGINA

Thin-walled tube that connects the cervix to the external genitals It is located between the bladder and rectum It functions : As a passageway for the menstrual flow for uterine secretions to pass down through the introitus As the birth canal during labor Organ of copulation (With the help of two Bartholins glands becomes lubricated during sexual intercourse)

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VAGINA

Wall consists of three coats: fibroelastic adventitia, smooth muscle muscularis, and a stratified squamous mucosa Mucosa near the vaginal orifice forms an incomplete partition called the hymen Vaginal fornix upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix

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CERVIX
The

cervix connects the uterus to the vagina The cervical opening to the vagina is small (this acts as a safety precaution against foreign bodies entering the uterus) During childbirth, the cervix dilates to accommodate the passage of the fetus This dilation is a sign that labor has begun

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UTERUS

Commonly referred to as the womb A pear shaped organ about the size of a clenched fist It is made up of the endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium Consists of blood-enriched tissue that sloughs off each month during menstrual cycle The powerful muscles of the uterus expand to accommodate a growing fetus and push it through the birth canal

UTERUS

Located in the pelvis anterior to the

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rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder

Parts of uterus : Corpus major portion of the uterus Fundus rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes Isthmus narrowed region between the body and cervix Cervix Cervical glands secrete mucus that covers the external os and blocks sperm entry except during midcycle

Supports of the Uterus


Mesometrium portion of the broad ligament that supports the uterus laterally Lateral cervical ligaments extend from the cervix and superior part of the vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis Uterosacral ligaments (cardinal) paired ligaments that secure the uterus to the sacrum Round ligaments bind the anterior wall to the labia majora

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Peritoneal Pouches
Several cul-de-sacs of peritoneum exist around the uterus Vesicouterine pouch lies between the bladder and the uterus Rectouterine pouch lies between the rectum and the uterus

Uterine Wall (Fig. 346B)


Composed of three layers Perimetrium outermost serous layer; the visceral peritoneum Myometrium middle layer; interlacing layers of smooth muscle Endometrium mucosal lining of the uterine cavity

Endometrium (Fig. 346B)


Has numerous uterine glands that change in length as the endometrial thickness changes Stratum functionalis: Undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones Is shed during menstruation Stratum basalis: Forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends Does not respond to ovarian hormones

Uterine Vascular Supply (Fig. 375B)


Uterine arteries arise from the internal iliacs, ascend the sides of the uterus and send branches into the uterine wall Arcuate arteries branches of the uterine arteries in the myometrium that give rise to radial branches Radial branches descend into the endometrium and give off: Spiral arteries to the stratum functionalis Straight arteries to the stratum basalis

Uterine Vascular Supply (Fig. 375B)


Degeneration and regeneration of spiral arteries causes the functionalis to shed during menstruation Veins of the endometrium are thin-walled with occasional sinusoidal enlargements

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FALLOPIAN TUBES (TUBA UTERINA)


as a pathway for the ovum to the uterus Are the site of fertilization by the male sperm Expand distally around the ovary forming the Ampulla The ampulla ends in the funnel-shaped, ciliated infundibulum containing fingerlike projections called fimbriae
Serve

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Uterine Tubes
The uterine tubes have no contact with the ovaries and the ovulated oocyte is cast into the peritoneal cavity Beating cilia on the fimbriae create currents to carry the oocyte into the uterine tube The oocyte is carried toward the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary action Nonciliated cells keep the oocyte and the sperm nourished and moist Mesosalpinx visceral peritoneum that supports the uterine tubes

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OVARIES

The female gonads or sex glands They develop and expel an ovum each month A woman is born with approximately 400,000 immature eggs called follicles During a lifetime a woman release @ 400 to 500 fully matured eggs for fertilization The follicles in the ovaries produce the female sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen These hormones prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg

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BREASTS
Organs of sexual arousal

Contain mammary glands Consist of connective tissue that serves as support Each breast contain 15-25 clusters called lobes Each lobule is connected by ducts that open into the nipples The nipples are made up of erectile tissue The pigmented around the nipples are called the areola

Breast size is determined primarily by heredity Size also depends on the existing fat and glandular tissue Breasts may exhibit cyclical changes, including increased swelling and tenderness prior to menstruation

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