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Udai Pareeks Understanding

Organizational Behaviour
Third Edition
Dr. Udai Pareek

Revised and Updated by Prof. Sushama Khanna EMPI, New Delhi

Chapter 22 POWER AND POLITICS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the concept of power and politics in the organization 2. Distinguish between coercive (controlling) and persuasive (empowering) power 3. Spell out steps in empowering of individuals and organizations 4. Discuss the dynamics of power in organizations 5. List various ways of enhancing and using power in organizations

CONCEPT AND BASES OF POWER


Power is a measure of a persons potential to get others to do what he or she wants them to do, as well as to avoid being forced to do what he or she does not want to do.

Power

Coercive Persuasive

Fear love

personal Position

Coercive bases of Power


BASE 1.Organisational Position 2.Closeness to power source 3.Charisma 4.Punishing 5.Personal relationship 6.Withholding/depriving information TYPE 1.Status 2.Reflected 3.Charismatic 4.Coercive 5.Emotional 6.Manipulative

Persuasive bases of Power


BASE 1.Expertise 2.Competence 3.Role Modeling 4.Rewarding 5.Helping/caring 6.Information TYPE 1.Expert 2.Competence 3.Referent 4.Reinforcing 5.Emotional 6.Logical

EMPOWERMENT
Empowerment is the process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions that affect them and their work the power needed to make decisions that affect them and their work Empowerment has been defined in a simple equation: Empowerment = direction x support x autonomy,23

OCTAPACE CULTURE

DELEGATION
EMPOWERMENT

STUCTURED INTERVENTIONS

DECENTALIZTION

POWER ENHANCERS

STEPS FOR DELEGATION


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Jointly define role boundaries Provide needed competencies Monitor but do not supervise closely Jointly analyze mistakes to plan for future Reward discretion and initiative Provide needed resources Respect role boundaries Review delegation down the line

POWER ENHANCERS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Clear rules and procedures Systems to generate feedback to individuals Intrinsically satisfying tasks Advisory and staff functions. Rewards determined objectively by a team rather than by an individual. Spatial distance of different key functionaries. strong and cohesive teams self-governing teams (such as branches) Well defined tasks formalized and clear organization structure schemes to reward employees for ideas/suggestion/creativity. professional orientation. Development of systems

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

1. 2. 3. 4.

Organizational politics is the use of power, with power being a source of potential energy to manage relationships Organizational Politics: Assumption
Organizations are coalitions of individuals and interest groups There are enduring differences among individuals and groups. Most of the important decisions in organizations involve allocation of scarce resources: these are decisions about who gets what. Due to scarce resources and enduring differences, conflict is central to organizational dynamics. Organizational goals and decisions emerge from bargaining, negotiating, and jockeying for position among members of different coalitions.

5.