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Security, Privacy, and Data Protection for Trusted Cloud Computing

Prof. Kai Hwang, University of Southern California


Keynote Address, International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (PDCS 2010), Marina Del Rey, CA. Nov. 8, 2010


Nov.8, 2010

Cloud Platforms over Datacenters Cloud Infrastructure and Services Reputation-based Trust Management Data Coloring and Software Watermarking Cloud Support of The Internet of Things

Kai Hwang, USC

Handy Tools We Use over the Evolutional Periods In History

Is it safe to play with your computer, when you are naked and vulnerable ?
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Top 10 Technologies for 2010

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Web 2.0, Clouds, and Internet of Things


HPC: HighPerformance Computing

HTC: HighThroughput
Computing

P2P:
Peer to Peer

MPP:
Massively Parallel Source: K. Hwang, G. Fox, and J. Dongarra, Processors

Distributed Systems and Cloud Computing,


Morgan Kaufmann, 2011 (in press to appear)

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Public, Private and Hybrid Clouds

Source: Distributed Systems and Cloud Computing, [2]

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Cloud Computing as A Service


[9]

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Cloud Providers, Services and Security Measures

Kai Hwang and Deyi Li, Trusted Cloud Computing with Secure Resources and Data Coloring, IEEE Internet Computing, Sept. 2010
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Amazon Virtual Private Cloud VPC (http://aws.amazon.com/vpc/ )

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vSphere 4 : An OS for Cloud Platform

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Cloud Services Stack


Application Cloud Services Platform Cloud Services Compute & Storage Cloud Services Co-Location Cloud Services Network Cloud Services
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Top 8 Cloud Computing Companies

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Marc Benioff, Founder of Salesforce.com


1986 graduated from USC 1999 started salesforce.com 2003-05 appointed chairman of US Presidential IT Advisory Committee 2009 announced Force.com platform for cloud business computing

A SaaS and PaaS Cloud Provider


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Ex' X

Security and Trust Crisis


in Cloud Computing
Protecting datacenters must first secure cloud resources and uphold user privacy and data integrity. Trust overlay networks could be applied to build reputation systems for establishing the trust among interactive datacenters. A watermarking technique is suggested to protect shared data objects and

massively distributed software modules.


These techniques safeguard user authentication and tighten the data access-control in public clouds. The new approach could be more cost-effective than using the traditional encryption and firewalls to secure the clouds.
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Trusted Zones for VM Insulation


Identity federation

Federate identities with public clouds


APP OS APP OS

Insulate infrastructure from Malware, Trojans and cybercriminals


Tenant #2

Anti-malware Cybercrime intelligence Strong authentication

Virtual network security

Control and isolate VM in the virtual infrastructure

Virtual Infrastructure

APP

APP OS

OS

Tenant #1

Insulate information from other tenants Insulate information from cloud providers employees

Data loss prevention

Virtual Infrastructure

Access Mgmt

Segregate and control user access

Encryption & key mgmt Tokenization

Cloud Provider
Physical Infrastructure Physical Infrastructure Security Info. & Event Mgmt Nov.8, 2010

Enable end to end view of security events and Kai Hwang, USC compliance across infrastructures

GRC

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Data Security and Copyright Protection in A Trusted Cloud Platform

Source: Reference [3, 4]

Nov.8, 2010 March 11, 2009

Kai Hwang, USC Prof. Kai Hwang, USC

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Security Protection Mechanisms for Public Clouds


Mechanism
Trust delegation and Negotiation Worm containment and DDoS Defense Reputation System Over Resource Sites

Brief Description
Cross certificates must be used to delegate trust across different PKI domains. Trust negotiation among different CSPs demands resolution of policy conflicts. Internet worm containment and distributed defense against DDoS attacks are necessary to secure all datacenters and cloud platforms . Reputation system could be built with P2P technology. One can build a hierarchy of reputation systems from datacenters to distributed file systems .

Fine-grain access control Collusive Piracy prevention


Nov.8, 2010

This refers to fine-grain access control at the file or object level. This adds up the security protection beyond firewalls and intrusion detection systems . Piracy prevention achieved with peer collusion detection and content poisoning techniques .
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Cloud Service Models and Their Security Demands

Cloud computing will not be accepted by common users unless the trust and dependability issues are resolved satisfactorily [1].
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Trust Management for Protecting Cloud Resources and Safeguard Datacenter Operations [3]

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Source: [4]

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PowerTrust Built over A Trust Overlay Network


Global Reputation Scores V v1 Initial Reputation Aggregation Regular Random Walk v2 v3
... ... ... ...

vn Power Nodes Distributed Ranking Module

Reputation Updating Look-ahead Random Walk Local Trust Scores

Trust Overlay Network

R. Zhou and K. Hwang, PowerTrust : A scalable and robust reputation system for structured P2P networks, IEEE-TPDS, May 2007
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Kai Hwang, USC

Distributed Defense against DDoS Attacks over Multiple Network Domains


(Chen, Hwang, and Ku, IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Dec. 2007 )
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Data Coloring via Watermarking

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Color Matching To Authenticate Data


Owners and Cloud Service Providers

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The Internet of Things

Smart Earth:
Internet of Things (IOT)

Smart Earth

An IBM Dream

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Opportunities of IOT in 3 Dimensions

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Architecture of The Internet of Things


Application Layer Merchandise Tracking Environment Protection Intelligent Search Telemedicine Intelligent Traffic Smart Home

Cloud Computing Platform

Network Layer

Mobile Telecom Network

The Internet

Information Network

RFID Sensing Layer RFID Label

Sensor Network

GPS

Sensor Nodes

Road Mapper

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Supply Chain Management


supported by the Internet of Things.
( http://www.igd.com)

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Smart Power Grid

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Mobility Support and Security Measures for Mobile Cloud Computing


Cloud Service Models Infrastructure Cloud (The IaaS Model) Platform Cloud (The PaaS Model)

Mobility Support and Data Protection Methods


Special air interfaces Mobile API design File/Log access control Data coloring Wireless PKI , User authentication, Copyright protection Disaster recovery

Hardware and Software Measures for Cloud Security


Hardware/software root of trust,

Provisioning of virtual machines,


Software watermarking Host-based firewalls and IDS Network-based firewalls and IDS Trust overlay network Reputation system OS patch management

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Service-Oriented Cloud of Clouds (Intercloud or Mashup)


Raw Data
S S

Data

Information

Knowledge
Another Grid
S S

Wisdom Decisions

SS Filter Cloud SS

fs

fs
fs

Filter Service

Another Service

SS
fs

fs
Filter Service

fs
fs

SS SS

fs

fs fs fs
Filter Service

Filter Cloud SS

fs fs

Another Grid

SS
S S S S

S S

S S

Compute Cloud

Database

Cloud of clouds -- from Raw Data to Wisdom. SS = Sensor service, fs = filter services
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S S fs

S S

Another Grid

fs
fs

Discovery Cloud

Filter Cloud

Filter Cloud
fs

fs
Filter Service

fs fs fs

Discovery Cloud

fs fs

fs

Filter Cloud

Filter Cloud

Traditional Grid with exposed services

S S

S S

S S

S S

S S

S S

Storage Cloud

Sensor or Data Interchange Service

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Conclusions:
Computing clouds are changing the whole IT , service industry, and global economy. Clearly, cloud computing demands ubiquity, efficiency, security, and trustworthiness. Cloud computing has become a common practice in business, government, education, and entertainment leveraging 50 millions of servers globally installed at thousands of datacenters today.

Private clouds will become widespread in addition to using a few


public clouds, that are under heavy competition among Google, MS, Amazon, Intel, EMC, IBM, SGI, VMWare, Saleforce.com, etc.

Effective trust management, guaranteed security, user privacy,


data integrity, mobility support, and copyright protection are crucial to the universal acceptance of cloud as a ubiquitous service.

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SGI Cyclone HPC cloud for enabling SaaS and IaaS applications (http://www.sgi.com/cyclone)

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Nebula Cloud Developed by NASA


(http://nebula.nasa.gov)

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Cloud Computing Service Provider Priorities


Ensure confidentiality, integrity, and
availability in a multi-tenant environment.

Effectively meet the advertised SLA,


while optimizing cloud resource

utilization.

Offer tenants capabilities for selfservice, and achieve scaling through automation and simplification.

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Google App Engine Platform for PaaS Operations


Web Application Provider

Users

App Engine Admin Console

HTTP request

HTTP response

Local Development Build


App Engine SDK

Manage Traffic Monitor Version Control

User Interface

Upload
Test

Google Load Balance

Upgrade

Deploy

Data Data

Data Data

Data Data

Data Data

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Table 1:

Cloud Security Responsibilities by Providers and Users

Source: Reference [4]

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Concept of Virtual Clusters

(Source: W. Emeneker, et et al, Dynamic Virtual Clustering with Xen and Moab, ISPA 2006, Springer-Verlag LNCS 4331, 2006, pp. 440-451)

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