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• Sifat-sifat botani
• Ekologi dan pengaruh sekitaran
• Pembiakan dan pengeluaran benih
• Kepentingan ekonomi

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Division: Magnoliophyta
Class : Liliopsida
Order : Arecales
Family : Arecaceae
Genus : Elaeis
Species : Elaeis guineensis, Elaeis oleifera

Arecaceae atau famili palma adalah besar,

mengandungi lebih 4000 spesis dan
merangkumi lebih 200 genera.

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• Kelapa sawit – adalah spesis palm tropika
yang minyaknya adalah makanan asal yang
telah digunakan lebih 5,000 tahun.
• Kelapa sawit diperkenalkan dibhg lain Africa,
South East Asia dan Latin America pada abad
15th, telah diperkenalkan tahun 1870 sebagai
‘ornamental plant’.
• Terdapat 2 spesis oil palm, yang biasa dikenali
berasal dari Guinea Africa dan telah
digambarkan oleh Nicholaas Jacquin tahun
1763, dengan menamakannya, Elaeis
guinnesis Jacq.

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– The African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) – hidup
di Africa barat.
– The American Oil Palm (Elaeis oleifera) – hidup
antara Central America dan South America
• Elaeis guineensis Jacq., ianya terletak dalam
subfamily yang sama dengan coconut palm,
• Kelapa sawit berasal dari West Africa dan telah
ditanam dengan baiknya dikawasan tropika antara
200 garis khatulistiwa.
• Empat benih kelapa sawit telah dibawa dari Java
‘botanical garden’ tahun 1848, dan hasilnya
menjadi kawasan ini pengeluar terbesar didunia.
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• Benih ‘Deli’ ditanam berhampiran Deli, di Pulau
Sumatra dan tinggi hasil minyak dan
mempunyai mesokap yang tebal.
• Penanaman secara ladang diperkenalkan
pertama kali di Sumatra tahun 1977, dan pada
tahun 1917 di Malaysia.
• Banyak kawasan ladang kelapa sawit telah
dibangunkan di mana Malaysia menanam lebih
million hektar.
• Pengeluar dan pengekspot terbesar hasil sawit
– Malaysia, hasilkan 50% pengeluaran dunia
minyak sawit.
– Indonesia, hasilkan 30% jumlah
pengeluaran minyak sawit dunia.
– Kedua-dua negara sedang mengembangkan
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sawit dan keperluan terus
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• Secara umumnya terdapat tiga jenis buah kelapa
sawit iaitu dura, pisefera dan tenera.
• Buah/biji dikalskan kepada tiga jenis, berdasarkan
ketebalan tempurungnya;
– dura (3 to 8 mm tebal), mesokap hanya 35-
65% drp buah.endokap tebal.‘Deli‘ selalunya
induk betina.
– pisefera (tiada tempurung) tiada endokap tetapi
mesokap tebal dan boleh menjadi bunga betina
mandul (tiada biji didalamnya).
– tenera (lebih 3 mm tebal) endokap nipis
(<1/8”) dan 55-96% mesokap. Merupakan
generasi pertama (F1) hibrid kacukan dura x
• Dura- hasil dan berat buah tinggi tetapi rendah
bagi tenera.
• Tenera- hasilkan buah tinggi kandungan minyak.
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• Sawit adalah pokok tegak, monoecious, dan
mencapai tinggi 30 kaki dengan diameter
batang 12 inchi atau lebih.
• Kelapa sawit boleh mencapai 60-80 kaki tinggi
secara semulajadi tetapi hanya antara 20 ke 30
kaki apabila ditanam.
• Pokok matang terdiri daripada satu batang
tunggal yang tegak lurus menegak antara 1-2
kaki diameter, dan membesar 1.5 ke 3 kaki per
• Kelapa Sawit liar boleh mencecah umur 20
tahun, tetapi kelapa sawit ladang ditanam
semula selepas berumur 25 tahun, bila
mencecah 30 kaki tinggi kerana sukar untuki

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• Kelapa sawit adalah monoecious, hasilkan
jambak jantan dan betina dalam axil pelepah.
• The inflorescence of both sexes is a compound
spadix with 100-200 branches, initially enclosed
in a spathe or bract that splits 2 weeks prior to
• Each branch of the male inflorescence contains
hundreds of tiny flowers, yielding about
100,000 flowers in total.
– The staminate inflorescence may consist of
200 spikelets, with each spikelet bearing 700
to 1,200 florets. It may produce 3 ounces of

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• The pollen is released over a 5-day period,
and most of it on the third day after flowering
starts; the pistillate inflorescence may have as
many spikelets but only five to 30 florets on
• The female inflorescence contains hundreds of
flowers, larger than males, borne in triads
with two abortive males flanking one female,
all enclosed in a spiny bract.
• The pistillate floret is larger than the
staminate one and bears an ovoid or nearly
cylindrical three-celled ovary.

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• Females have off-white, tri-lobed stigmas
visible among the bracts.
• The flowers are produced in dense clustes;
each individual flower is small, with three
sepals and three petals
• The florets take about a week to open, the
individual floret being receptive 36 to 48 hours.
Pollen must be transferred from the staminate
clusters to the pistillate ones.
• The oil palm male and female inflorescences
open at different times on the plant; thus,
rarely is the plant self-fertilized

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• The fruit takes six months to mature from
polliation to maturity; it comprises an oily,
fleshy outer layer (the pericarp), with a single
seed (kernel), also rich in oil. Unlike its
relative, the coconut plam, the oil palm does
not produce offshoots; propagation is by
sowing the seeds.
• Oil palm fruit also fall into 2 categories based
on fruit color, with a
– virescens form lacking anthocyanin and
being orange at maturity, and
– nigrescens form with brown or black on the
light-exposed portion of the fruit.

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• Oil palms were originally thought to be wind
pollinated, but more recent evidence suggests
that they are primarily insect pollinated.
• In Africa, weevils (Elaeidobius spp) are the
pollinators, which had to be introduced to
southeast Asia since Thrips hawaiiensis, a
native species was not an efficient pollinator.
• In Latin America, a native beetle Mystrops
costaricensis, along with introduced
Elaeidobius spp are the pollinators.
• The insects are attracted to the male
inflorescences where they forage for pollen
and lay eggs, and move to female flowers by
accident since they produce the same scent as
male flowers.
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Elaeidobius spp
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• Fruits are drupes.
• The mesocarp and endocarp vary in thickness,
– dura types having thick endocarps and less
– tenera types the opposite.
• The exocarp color is green changing to orange
at maturity in virescens types, and orange
with brown or black cheek colors in the
nigrescens types.
• Fruit range in size from <1" to 2", and are
obovoid in shape.

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• The mesocarp, from which palm oil is derived,
is fibrous and oily, and the seed is opaque
white, encased in a brown endocarp; palm
kernel oil is derived from seeds.
• The female infructescence contains 200-300
fruit, and fruit set is 50-70%. Fruit ripen about
5-6 months after pollination.

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Soils and Climate

• Oil palms are grown on a wide range of soil

types, provided good drainage and pH
between 4 and 7.
• They do poorly on heavily leached sands or
heavy clays that do not drain well,
• The species is riparian in nature, and can
tolerate periodic flooding or a high water table,
as most of the roots form in the upper few feet
of soil.
• Irrigation is generally not practiced, as sites
are selected that lack an extended dry season.

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• Oil palm thrives in hot, wet tropical lowlands
receive at least 6 ft of rain per year, evenly
distributed, with at least 4" per month if a
short dry season exists.
• Areas with a strong dry season and less than 6
ft of rain have yields of 25-75% of their
• Optimal temperatures are in the 80s-90s °F,
with temperatures below 75°F slowing growth.
• Oil palm is generally grown within a few
hundred ft of sea level,
• High humidity and cloudiness prevail in most
regions, but 5-7 hr of direct sunlight per day is
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• Oil palm is propagated by seed, using F1 hybrid seed
from controlled crosses that produce tenera types (dura
x pisifera).
• Seed is produced by companies specializing in oil palm
• Pre-germinated hybrid seed are as much as US 50
cents/each. Seed are sown in plastic bags and grown in
nurseries for one year prior to field planting.
• Pretreatment of seed involves
– drying to 17-18% water content, bagging in plastic, and
storing at about 100°F for several weeks.
– After heat treatment, seed are soaked in water for a few
days, then germinated in bags at 75-85°F.
– When germination reaches the desired level, in 15-30
days, seed are sorted based on radicle length, packed, and
– Seed are sown in black plastic bags and grown in a
nursery for 12-16 months before transplanting to the field.
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• Tissue culture of oil palm is carried out on a
commercial scale, producing clones of superior
• Efficient tissue culture regeneration of plants
opens the door to genetic modification, which
is currently being applied to other oil crops to
produce higher quality oils.

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Planting Design, Training, Pruning
Optimal plant density is about 58 trees/acre, and
trees are planted in triangular patterns about 30 ft
• During the first 3 years, little or no fruit is obtained
and plantations are often intercropped with staples
such as maize or yams (Dioscorea spp).
• In later years, palm plantations are too densely
shaded to allow successful intercropping or staples,
grasses for grazing, or other crops.
• Ground covers are sometimes sown at planting to
prevent soil erosion and reduce competition from
problem weeds. The leguminous, creeping ground
cover Pueraria, itself a noxious weed in the
southeastern USA, is often used as a cover crop for
oil palm
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• Virtually no pruning or training is required of
oil palm.
• Trees grow straight up, and do not sucker or
• Old leaves are pruned off to facilitate access
to the bunch at harvest.
• When palms reach heights of 20-30 ft, they
become difficult to harvest, and are often
injected with an herbicide to kill them or
bulldozed down.
• New trees are planted among the dead and
rotting trunks.

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• As fruit ripen, they change from black (or green

in virescens types) to orange, but have varying
degrees of black cheek color depending on light
exposure and cultivar. Thus, color is not specific
enough to determine time of harvest.
• Fruit begin to abscise from bunches at
maturity, and the number of loose fruit per
bunch is used as a field criterion for harvest.
When just a few fruits are detached, the entire
bunch is harvested, since more oil is potentially
lost by fruit abscission than by harvesting some
of the fruit not fully ripe.
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Harvest Method
• Fruit bunches are harvested using chisels or
hooked knives attached to long poles.
• The leaf or leaves below the bunch are first
removed to gain access to the peduncle.
• Loose fruit must be collected by hand beneath
the tree and when bunches fall, so the area
around trees is kept free of vegetation and
• In Africa, wild palms are still harvested by
• Each tree must be visited every 10-15 days as
bunches ripen throughout the year.

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Postharvest Handling

• Harvested bunches are heavy, and

several implements have been
developed to transport them to the oil
• In primitive areas, animals are used to
haul fruit on their backs or by carts, but
hydraulic cranes lift fruit bunches into
trucks or railcars in most plantations.

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Production and
• Oil palms are grown for their clusters of fruit which can
weigh 40-50 kg.
• Upon harvest, the drupe, pericarp and seeds are used
for production of soap and edible vegetable oil different
grades of oil quality are obtained from the pericarp and
the kernel, with the pericarp oil used mainly for cooking
oil, and the kernel oil used in processed foods.
• For each hectare of oil palm, which is harvested year-
round, the annual production averages 10 tonnes of
fruit, which yields 3,000 kg of pericarp oil, and 750 kg
of seed kernes which yield 250 kg of high quality palm
kernel oil as well as 500 kg of kernel meal. The meal is
used to feed livesstock.
• Palm oil is high in vitamin K and dietary Magnesium.
• Palm oil contains 43% saturated fats, 43%
monounsaturated fats and 13% polyunsaturated fats.
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Oil palm fruit Palm oil
Water (%) 26 0.5
Calories 540 878
Protein (%) 1.9 0
Fat (%) 58.4 99.1
Carbohydrates (%) 12.5 0.4
Crude Fiber (%) 3.2 0
% of US RDA*
Vitamin A 3.5 2.3
Thiamin, B1 13.3 2.0
Riboflavin, B2 5.6 Trace
Niacin 7.0 ---
Vitamin C 26.7 ---
Calcium 10.3 0.9
Phosphorus 5.9 1.0
Iron 45 55
Sodium 2.4 ---
Potassium 5.3 ---
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Stages of processing

This is the first operation in the processing line of palm
oil. This involves the steaming of the harvested fresh
fruit bunch (FFB) to loosing the fruit from the bunch
and burst open the oil cell.
This is the next stage after sterilisation and it involves
the removal of the fruit from the bunches using a
This process is the next stage after stripping and this
involves the pounding of the fruits which have been
removed from the bunch.
Final stage in the processing of palm oil. Dirt, moisture
and other impurities is removed from the crude palm oil
by this process.

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