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In organizations


A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with As wishes.
Dependency: Bs relationship to A when A possesses

something that B requires


Behavior to influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.

Power refers to a capacity that a has to influence the behavior of B so that B inaccordence with A`s wish 4 this definition implies a potential that definition implies a potential that need be actualized to be effective and a dependency relationship and the most important aspect power is that it is a function of DEPENDENCY

A careful comparison of power with our description of leadership in the previous two chapters reveals that the concepts are closely intertwined . Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement.

formal power:formal power can come from the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority..

Coercive power

The person can make things difficult for people, and you want to avoid getting him or her angry.
The person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people, and you find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her. The person has the right, considering his or her position and your job responsibilities, to expect you to comply with legitimate requests.

Reward power

Legitimate power

personal power:Bases of personal power expertise and the respect and admiration of others.

Expert power

The person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect, and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters.
You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her.

Referent power

The least effective power bases are the ones most likely to be used by managers

Coercive, legitimate, and reward Easiest to implement

Effective leaders use referent and/or expert power

The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments Managers disagree over definition of empowerment

Empowerment as delegating decision making within a set of clear boundaries versus Empowerment as a process of risk taking and personal growth

The Supreme Court of Canada defines sexual harassment as

Unwelcome behaviour of a sexual nature in the workplace that negatively affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for the employee

Disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment Includes

Unwanted physical touching Recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the person isnt interested Coercive threats that a person will lose her or his job if she or he refuses a sexual proposition

More subtle forms (harder to interpret)

Unwanted looks or comments Off-colour jokes Sexual artifacts such as nude calendars in the workplace Sexual innuendo Misinterpretations of where the line between being friendly ends and harassment begins

Definition:there has been no shortage of definitions for organizational politics essentially, however, they have focused on the use of power to affect decision making in the organization or on behaviors by members that are self-serving and organizationally nonsanctioned.

Those activities that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.

Legitimate: normal everyday behaviour Illegitimate: extreme political behaviours that violate the implied rules of the game

High self-monitors Internal locus of control High mach Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectations of success

Attacking or blaming others Controlling information Forming coalitions Networking Creating obligations Managing impressions