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3GPP Long Term Evolution Introduction

LTE TIS 2009-12

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Agenda
1. LTE & 3GPP Standard 2. LTE Network System

3. LTE Key Technologies


4. LTE TDD Characteristics

2 | 3GPP LTE Technology - Overview| Dec 2009

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1. LTE & 3GPP Standard

3 | 3GPP LTE Technology - Overview| Dec 2009

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About 3GPP LTE


Since November 2004, 3GPP has been working on the Long Term Evolution (LTE) for enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and focus on adopting 4G technology. Specs (Rel-8) were finalized and approved in January 2008. LTE-Advanced study phase in progress. Target on deployment in 2010. By 2015, subscriptions could exceed 400 million, and revenues from LTE could represent more than 15% of all mobile revenues. http://www.3gpp1.net/New-UMTS-Forum-report-forecasts

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LTE Milestone in 3GPP Standard Evolution


Rel99
UMTS FDD DCH up to 2Mbps

Rel4
Core Netw. Evolution FDD repeaters 1.28Mcps TDD

Rel5

Rel6

Rel7

Rel8

3GPP Release
HSDPA Multimedia sub-system HSUPA MBMS HSPA+ i.e. MIMO, CPC, DL 64QAM, UL 16-QAM

Rel 1

LTE

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3GPP Requirements For LTE


Spectrum efficiency

DL : 3-4 times HSDPA for MIMO(2,2) UL : 2-3 times E-DCH for MIMO(1,2)
Frequency Spectrum :

Scalable bandwidth : 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20MHz To cover all frequencies of IMT-2000: 450 MHz to 2.6 GHz
Peak data rate (scaling linearly with the spectrum allocation)

DL : > 100Mb/s for 20MHz spectrum allocation UL : > 50Mb/s for 20MHz spectrum allocation
Capacity

200 users for 5MHz, 400 users in larger spectrum allocations (active state)
Latency

C-plane : < 100ms to establish U-plane U-plane : < 10ms from UE to server
Coverage

Performance targets up to 5km, slight degradation up to 30km


Mobility

LTE is optimized for low speeds 0-15km/h but connection maintained for speeds up to 350 or 500km/h Handover between 3G & 3G LTE
Real-time < 300ms Non-real-time < 500ms
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Increased Performances & Reduced Costs with LTE


LTE HSPA
>100 Mb/s DL >50 Mb/s UL H/O with GSM,UMTS, CDMA

<10ms

0.005

14.4 Mb/s DL 5.7Mb/s UL 384kbps DL 128kbps UL

60ms

0.03 H/O with GSM

UMTS
EDGE

120ms

0.06

220kbps DL

750ms

Throughput

Latency

Cost per Megabyte*

Mobility Roaming

* Source: Analysis Research, 2006


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LTE landscape

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2. LTE Network System

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3GPP LTE system architecture


MME/SAEGW MME/SAEGW

S1

Enhanced Packet Core

E-UTRAN
X2
eNB

X2
eNB

eNB

X2

eNodeB cell site node S1-MME: control plane between eNodeB and MME S1-U: user plane between eNodeB and SAEGW

S1: interface between an eNB and an EPC, providing an interconnection point between the E-UTRAN and the EPC. It is also considered as a reference point. X2: logical interface between two eNBs. Whilst logically representing a point to point link between eNBs, the physical realization need not be a point to point link.
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EUTRAN Network Architecture


eUTRAN EPC

LTE-Uu UE eNB S1U X2C X2U LTE-Uu X2C X2U S1-MME S1-MME S1-MME

MME

X2C X2U S1U eNB

AGW
S1U

eNB

UE

AP AP AP IP Transport Network (IP Cloud)

AP AP

X2C - X2 Cplane X2U - X2 Uplane AP - Access Point (for IP cloud)


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S1U - S1 Uplane S1-MME - S1 Cplane

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Flat Architecture
Internet
PSTN PSTN

Internet
GGSN

MSC

SGSN

aGW

RNC

Node-B

Node-B Node-B

eNode-B eNode-B

eNode-B

Low latency

RTT: 10 ms instead of 60 ms for HSPA Short TTI (1 ms instead of 2ms for HSPA) and the flat architecture Backhaul based from day 1 on IP / MPLS transport
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Network Simplification: From 3GPP to 3GPP LTE


3GPP architecture 3GPP LTE architecture

4 functional entities on the control plane and user plane

3 standardized UP & CP interfaces


Control plane
User plane

Control plane

User plane

GGSN MME MMF

ASGW AGW

2 functional entities on the user plane: eNodeB and ASGW SGSN control plane functions => ASGW & MME RNC control plane functions => MME & eNodeB Less interfaces, some functions will disappear
4 layers into 2 layers

SGSN

RNC

NodeB

eNodeB

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Evolve GGSN integrated ASGW Moving SGSN functionalities to ASGW. RNC evolutions to RRM DB on a IP distributed network for enhancing mobility management.

3GPP System Architecture Evolution


Mobility by Single Gw or Mobile IP
Multimedia Stratum

IMS
Other IP Access 3GPP or non-3GPP (e.g. I-WLAN, 3GPP2, LTE also) MIP HA
L3 AAA (e.g. PCRF)

ASGW GGSN

Network Stratum (AIPN)

GAN GERAN

PS & Evolved PS Core


Evolved UTRAN

UTRAN

Access System Stratum PCRF Policy and Charging Rules Function


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S1 Architecture
Key points Flex Architecture for both interfaces S1-U and S1-MME MME and SAE GW can be split in two logical nodes or combined in the same AGW
MME/ SAEGW MME/ SAEGW MME/ SAEGW MME/ SAEGW

S1

eNB

eNB

eNB

eNB

2 entities for control plane: eNB & MME (S1-MME interface)

Pool A

Overlapping region

Pool B

eNB: UMTS NodeB plus UMTS RNC (RRC, Radio Bearer Management) MME: UMTS MM and SM functions
2 entities for user plane: eNB & SAE GW (S1-U interface)

eNB: UMTS NodeB plus UMTS RNC (PDCP/RLC/MAC) SAE GTW: (Serving Gateway) UMTS packet core user plane No Macro-diversity
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Functional Mapping (from TR 25.813)


eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont. Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC PDCP RLC MAC S1 PHY Serving Gateway Mobility Anchoring MME NAS Security Idle State Mobility Handling SAE Bearer Control

MME Functions Idle mode mobility

Tracking area update Maintenance of equivalent tracking areas Idle mode access restrictions Security Key management S1 connection establishment

Idle to active mode transition


Session management RAB and QoS S1 handling during HO SAE GW radio related functionality


internet

Idle S1 GTP bearer end point QoS handling & tunnel mgt S1 path switch during Handover

E-UTRAN

EPC

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Functional Mapping (from TR 25.813)


eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont. Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC PDCP RLC MAC S1 PHY Serving Gateway Mobility Anchoring MME NAS Security Idle State Mobility Handling SAE Bearer Control

internet

LTE functions in eNode-B Selection of aGW at UE attachment Routing towards aGW at UE initial access NAS messaging encapsulated by RRC for tx over radio Scheduling and transmission of paging messages Scheduling and transmission of System Information Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both UL and DL Configuration and provision of eNB measurements Radio Bearer Control Radio Admission Control Access restrictions in Active state Connection Mobility Control in LTE_ACTIVE state Active mode Handover handling RRC, header compression, encryption, RLC, MAC, PHY Security of User plane and RRC Encryption of both in PDCP, integrity check of RRC Scheduling and associated QoS handling

E-UTRAN

EPC

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RRM Functions (1/3)


eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont. Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC PDCP RLC MAC S1 PHY Serving Gateway Mobility Anchoring MME NAS Security Idle State Mobility Handling SAE Bearer Control

Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC):

Managing the radio resources (notably the radio resource blocks) such that inter-cell interference is kept under control
Load Balancing (LB):

Influence the traffic load distribution in such a manner that radio resources remain highly utilized and the QoS of in-progress sessions are maintained to the possible extent (may result in handover decisions)
Inter-RAT Radio Resource Management:
internet

E-UTRAN

EPC

In connection with inter-RAT mobility (taking into account the involved RAT resource situation, UE capabilities & operator policies)

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RRM Functions (2/3)


eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont. Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC PDCP RLC MAC S1 PHY Serving Gateway Mobility Anchoring MME NAS Security Idle State Mobility Handling SAE Bearer Control

Connection Mobility Control (CMC):

Management of radio resources in connection with idle or active mode Mobility of radio connections: handover decisions based on UE & e-NodeB measurements + potentially: neighbour cell load, traffic distribution, transport & HW resources & operator defined policies
Radio Bearer Control (RBC):

Establishment, maintenance & release of Radio Bearers


internet

E-UTRAN

EPC

Taking into account overall resource situation, QoS requirements of in-progress sessions and of the new service)
Radio Admission Control (RAC):

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RRM Functions (3/3)


eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont. Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC PDCP RLC MAC S1 PHY Serving Gateway Mobility Anchoring MME NAS Security Idle State Mobility Handling SAE Bearer Control

Packet Scheduling (PSC)

Allocate/De-allocate resources (including buffer, processing resources & resource blocks) to UP & CP packets including:
Selection of RB, whose packets are to be scheduled Managing the necessary resources (e.g. power levels, specific resource blocks)

internet

E-UTRAN

EPC

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LTE ARCHITECTURE Control Plane Layout over S1


UE NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC PHY RRC PDCP RLC MAC PHY eNB MME NAS

UE
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eNode-B
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MME

LTE ARCHITECTURE Control Plane Layout over S1


UE NAS RRC PDCP RLC
PDCP sub-layer performs: MAC Integrity protection & ciphering

NAS sub-layer performs: Authentication Security control Idle mode mobility handling Idle mode paging origination

eNB

MME NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC PHY


RRC sub-layer performs: Broadcasting Paging Connection Mgt Radio bearer control Mobility functions UE measurement reporting & control

PHY

UE
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eNode-B
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MME

LTE ARCHITECTURE User Plane Layout over S1

UE PDCP RLC MAC PHY

eNB PDCP RLC MAC PHY

SAE Gateway

UE
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eNode-B
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MME

LTE ARCHITECTURE User Plane Layout over S1


Physical sub-layer performs: DL: ODFMA, UL: SC-FDMA HARQ UL power control Multi-stream transmission & reception (i.e. MIMO) PDCP sub-layer performs: Header compression Ciphering

UE PDCP RLC MAC PHY

eNB PDCP RLC MAC PHY

SAE Gateway
RLC sub-layer performs: Transferring upper layer PDUs In-sequence delivery of PDUs No error correction through ARQ Duplicate detection Flow control Concatenation/re-assembly of packets MAC sub-layer performs: Scheduling Error correction through HARQ Priority handling across UEs & logical channels In-sequence delivery of RLC PDUs Multiplexing/de-multiplexing of RLC radio bearers into/from PhCHs on TrCHs

UE
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eNode-B
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MME

From UE Power-up to Active Connection


Power-up Acquisition Cell search procedure Frequency/Timing acquisition p-SCH, s-SCH & Reference Signal Cell Id determination SIB message CCPCH/PDSCH Message from UE (origination, registration, ) LTE Network

Idle

Access

PRACH/PUSCH
Registration procedure PDSCH/PUSCH DL traffic

Registration

Traffic

PDSCH
UL traffic PUSCH

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3. LTE Key Technologies

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Innovative Technologies Emerging in Standards


WiMAX 802.16e-2005 OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS WiMAX 802.16m OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS

CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev.A IP transport

EV-DO Rev.C OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS

HSDPA / HSUPA IP Transport

HSPA+ MIMO All-IP

3G LTE
OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS

2006

2007

2008 1st Commercial launches

2009

Beyond

OFDM, All-IP, MIMO & AAS are the key cornerstones of new & future wireless standards
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Key LTE Features to Overcome Challenges


OFDMA
LTE-OFDMA, 5MHz, SCME, urban macro, d =10 , d =0.5 , 30km/h, 16-QAM, real CE (lin. interp.)
tx rx

20 18 16 14
MIMO MIMO SISO, MIMO MIMO SISO, (SCW), R=1/3 (MCW), R=1/3 R=1/3 (SCW), R=2/3 (MCW), R=2/3 R=2/3

Throughput [Mbit/s]

Increased spectral efficiency Simplified Rx design Cheaper UE Scalable - Go beyond 5MHz limitation
MIMO: antenna technology

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

MIMO 2x2, 20Mbps/5MHz SISO, 10Mbps/5MHz

16QAM

Multiple-input, multiple-output Overcome multi-path interference Peak rate breakthrough


IP Core: flat, scalable

10

15

20 25 SNR [dB]

30

35

40

Low latency: 10 ms (60 ms for HSPA) Short TTI: 1 ms (2ms for HSPA) Backhaul based on IP / MPLS transport Fits with IMS, VoIP, SIP

Mobile
UMTS / HSDPA CDMA / EVDO WiMAX 16e

PSTN

POTS

Access
Local
802.11, Mesh WiMAX 16d Fixed OFDM MIMO Mobility

Core
Internet
IMS VoIP SIP

IP
Corporate

DSL / Cable

Ethernet

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Why OFDMA?
Suitable for MIMO implementation Ease Time & Frequency scheduling

Less receiver complexity


Robust to frequency-selective fading Robust to Inter-Symbol Interference (i.e. ISI)
High data rates

+
t

Mobile environment

ISI

Short symbol duration High-order modulations


Low inter-symbol distance

Multi-path
High delay spread
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29 | 3GPP LTE Technology - Overview| Dec 2009

OFDMA Principle
Power

N-OFDM Symbol duration Sub-carrier spacing = f Bandwidth

Frequency

User#1

User#2

User#3

User#4

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LTE Access Technologies OFDM


UL Bdw DL Bdw

Frequence duplex

FDD

Frame

LTE UE

Time duplex

TDD

UL slot

DL slot

Time

eNode-B

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UMTS LTE SC-FDMA Transmitter/receiver


568 864*2 = 1728 USCH data Channel Coding

LTE User Equipment


864*2 = 1728 12*6*12 = 864

12*6*12 = 864

2048*14 = 28672 Scrambling Modulation Transform Precoder (2048*7+160+144*6)*2 = 30720

MAC Interface

Control data Scrambling 20 20 Modulation 10 Spread

12*7*2 = 168 10*12+12* 2*2 = 168

Resource Element Mapper

SC-FDMA signal generation

Demodulation reference signal generation (for PUSCH & PUCCH)

LTE Channel

LTE eNodeB
USCH data Channel Decoding Descrambling Transform decoding Equalization for PUSCH

Demodulation

2048*14 = 28672

MAC Interface

Demodulation Reference Signal Channel Estimation

Frequency offset estimation & compensation

Resource Element Demapper

SC-FDMA signal degeneration

(2048*7+160+144*6)*2 = 30720

UCCH data

Descrambing

Demodulation

De-spread

Equalization for PUCCH

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OFDM Advantages & Drawbacks


Advantages

Can easily adapt to severe channel conditions without complex equalization Robust against narrow-band co-channel interference Robust against Intersymbol interference (ISI) and fading High spectral efficiency Efficient implementation using FFT Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors Tuned sub-channel receiver filters are not required (unlike traditional FDM) Facilitates Single Frequency Networks
Drawbacks

Sensitive to Doppler shift and to frequency synchronization problems High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
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MIMO Principle
Transmission

Of several independent data streams in parallel

Over uncorrelated antennas (i.e. separated by 10)


Reception

Over NTx x NRx (ideally) uncorrelated paths Theoretical maximum rate increase factor = Min (NTx , NRx)
In a rich scattering environment; no gain in LOS environment Practical gain in urban areas = 1.2 to 1.5 for 2x2 MIMO Boosting capacity (DL and UL) and peak burst rate (DL),

Sensitive to SINR

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MIMO in 3GPP Rel8


In DL: 1, 2 or 4 TX antennas and 1, 2 or 4 RX antennas

Allowing multi-layer transmissions with up to four streams MU-MIMO: allocation of different streams to different users
MU-MIMO SU-MIMO In UL: only MU-MIMO no SU-MIMO Choice for MIMO mode at the Node B side

Restricted by the UE capability (e.g. number of RX antennas) Adapted slowly (e.g. once in a com, or every xiple of 100ms)
Rank adaptation (and/or antenna subset selection) is supported for evaluation The number of codewords transmitted to a UE is controlled through rank adaptation

MU-MIMO to a UE is determined either dynamically or semi-statically


Candidates for the UE feedback information

35 | 3GPP LTE Technology - Overview| Dec 2009

MIMO channel state information Channel quality indicator (CQI), which may be used by the Node B to decide a MCS level(s).
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Hybrid-ARQ Principle
R99 on a DCH channel
The erroneous block is deleted!

UE Serving RNC Node-B


Combining Rx packets

R5 on the HS-DSCH channel


The erroneous block is stored for recombination

Serving RNC

Node-B

UE

Combining Rx packets

LTE H-ARQ
The RTT is shorter due to eNode-B concentration

eNode-B

UE

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LTE RRC States


Cell re-selection Paging TA update

RRC_Idle (Idle state)

De-registration / PLMN change

RRC_NULL (detached state)


No MM context of UE in eNB / Core network Registration

RRC_CONNECTE D (active state)

Traffic / HO

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4. LTE TDD Characteristics

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TD-LTE Emerging from the FDD Shadow


TD-LTE was a key part of overall LTE standard to prevent repeat of 3G TDD failure Alignment achieved to both Europe TDD and China TD-SCDMA, achieved to ensure easy evolution and spectrum access Standard/LSTI: though TD-LTE standard started later than LTE FDD, China Mobile has successfully accelerated the TDD IOT timeline to be in line with FDD TD-LTE led by China Mobile TD-LTE is an important part of Next Generation BB Wireless Network identified by state M&L Projects, which is aligned with Chinas Innovation Policy to be Innovation Country CMCC driving TD-LTE as its next generation broadband wireless-IP network to replace GSM and TD-SCDMA and compete with WCDMA/LTE FDD operators Unique Global Alignment Vodafone, CMCC, Verizon have a joint agreement to promote the success of TD-LTE United to drive success of ecosystem Other operator groups asking for RFx and Trials to evaluate TD-LTE to allow use of unused spectrum assets
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Commonalities between TD-LTE and LTE FDD


The LTE infrastructure includes

Terminal, eNB, MME, PCRF, sGW and PDN GW


TD-LTE and LTE FDD are mainly different by dedicated realization of physical layer

Hence, they are invisible to the higher layers (except for parameter configurations). The MME, PCRF and xGW are virtually identical for FDD and TDD systems
Differences are in eNB and terminals with respect to FDD and TDD due to the difference in air interface design/physical layer. Therefore, it is beneficial to exploit this similarity to build one system that can support FDD and/or TDD.

PCRF MME

SGW

PDN GW

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Main Differences between TD-LTE and LTE FDD Summary


TD-LTE needs to support various TDD UL/DL allocations & needs to support coexistence with other TDD systems Resulting TD-LTE differences
Frame structure (3GPP TS36.300/TS36.211)
Introduction of frame structure 2 for TD-LTE Introduction of special subframe for switching from DL to UL and coexistence with other TDD systems

System information
Cell broadcasts the TDD UL/DL configuration information

Random Access
Additional short random access format for special subframe/UpPTS Multiple random access channels in a subframe

UL multi TTI scheduling


Multi-subframe scheduling for UL For heavy UL configurations to save DL control overhead

ACK/NACK bundling/multiplexing on UL control channel


For heavy DL configurations to save UL control overhead

H-ARQ process number & timing


Variable number of H-ARQ processes depending on the UL/DL allocation

41 | 3GPP LTE Technology - Overview| Dec 2009

Power control timing SRS configuration Different TD-LTE spectrum allocation (3GPP TS36.101)
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LTE Radio Frame Structure


Two types of radio frame
1. Type 1

Applicable to both FDD and TDD

One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts=10 ms

One slot, Tslot = 15360Ts = 0.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19

One subframe

2. Type 2

One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms One half-frame, 153600Ts = 5 ms

Applicable to TDD only


One slot, Tslot=15360Ts

30720Ts

DwPTS: Pilot for DL UpPTS: Special uplink time slot

Subframe #0 One subframe, 30720Ts DwPTS GP

Subframe #2

Subframe #3

Subframe #4

Subframe #5

Subframe #7

Subframe #8

Subframe #9

UpPTS

DwPTS

GP

UpPTS

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TD-LTE Frame Structure - Uplink and Downlink Configuration 3GPP TS36.211

Configuration 1 is supported in first release.


Configuration 2 is planned in TLA2.1 (2010 Q2).

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H-ARQ
Uplink H-ARQ
Unlike FDD, where the number of HARQ processes is always 8, in TDD the number of HARQ proceses depends on the UL/DL configuration. In TDD, time between grant and corresponding UL transmission, and between the UL transmission and the corresponding Ack/Nack varies with a minimum of 4 subframes. In TDD, when subframes allocated to UL exceed DL, multiple PHICH can be transmitted in same DL subframe corresponding to multiple UL subframes. In TDD, when subframes allocated to UL exceed DL, UL grant sent in DL subframe can correspond to transmission in multiple UL subframes as indicated by UL index in UL grant.

Downlink H-ARQ

Unlike FDD, where the number of HARQ processes is always 8, in TDD the number of HARQ proceses depends on the UL/DL configuration. In TDD, time between the DL transmission and the corresponding Ack/Nack varies with a minimum of 4 subframes. In TDD, when subframes allocated to DL exceed UL, multiple Ack/Nacks are bundled or multiplexed into one UL subframes on PUCCH or PUSCH. New field (DAI - Downlink Index Assignment) is added to the DCI information to indicate the number of DL transmissions to be grouped in one Ack/Nack response/

Variable number of H-ARQ processes depending on the UL/DL allocation

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Frequency Bands & Bandwidths 3GPP TS36.101


UMTS FDD frequency band (60 MHz)

New IMT-2000 frequency band (70 MHz)

TD-SCDMA main frequency band (15 MHz)

New IMT2000 frequenc y band (50MHz)

TD-SCDMA supplementary frequency band (40 MHz)

TD-SCDMA supplementary frequency band 45 | 3GPP LTE Technology - Overview| Dec 2009 (100MHz)

Additional bands for approval in Rel 9 FDD Band 20 to be integrated (UL 3410-3500 MHz / DL 3510-3600 MHz) All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, ##### TDD Band 41 to be integrated (3400-3600 MHz)

New IMT2000 frequenc y band (100MHz)

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