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# TWO PORT NETWORK

ANALYSIS
PREPARED BY:

Engr. Fernan D. Dematera

Introduction

A pair of terminals through which a current
may enter or leave a network is known as a port.
Two-terminal devices or elements (such as
resistors, capacitors, and inductors) result in
one-port networks. Most of the circuits we have
dealt with so far are two-terminal or one-port
circuits, represented in the figure below.

Introduction

In general, a network may have n ports. A
port is an access to the network and consists of
a pair of terminals; the current entering one
terminal leaves through the other terminal so
that the net current entering the port equals zero.

A two-port network is an electrical network
with two separate ports for input and output as
shown in the figure such as transistors and
transformers.

One-port network
- One pair of terminal
- Current entering the port = current leaving the port
A port : an access to a network and consists of two terminals
DEFINITION
+
V

I
Linear
network
I
+
V
1

I
1

Linear
network
+
V
2

I
2

I
2
I
1

Two-port network
- Two pairs of terminal : two-port
- Current entering a port = current leaving a port
- V
1
,V
2
, I
1
and I
2
are related using two-port network parameters
- In this chapter, we will study on six sets of these parameters
Impedance parameters
Hybrid parameters
Admittance parameters
Transmission parameters
Output port
Input port
DEFINITION
Inverse Hybrid parameters Inverse Transmission parameters
Reasons Why We Study Two-
Port Networks
1. Such networks are useful in communications,
control systems, power systems, & electronics. For
example, they are used in electronics to model
transistors and to facilitate cascaded design.

2. Knowing the parameters of a two-port network
enables us to treat it as a black box when
embedded within a larger network. To characterize
a two-port network requires that we relate the
terminal quantities V1, V2, I1, and I2 in the previous
out of which two are independent. The various
terms that relate these voltages and currents are
called parameters.

NETWORK PARAMETERS
The six parameters used to model a
two-port network are the following:

1. IMPEDANCE PARAMETERS
2. ADMITTANCE PARAMETERS
3. HYBRID PARAMETERS
4. INVERSE HYBRID
5. TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS
6. INVERSE TANSMISSION PARAMETERS
NETWORK PARAMETERS
The parameters relate the input and output
port variables as:

The parameters can be calculated or
measured by short-circuiting or open-circuiting
the appropriate input or output port.
NETWORK PARAMETERS
A two-port network is reciprocal if
z12 = z21, y12 = y21, h12 =h21,
g12 = g21, T = 1 or t = 1. Networks that
have dependent sources are not
reciprocal. Three important relationships
of parameters are;

Impedance parameters (z parameters)
(

=
(

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
I
I
z z
z z
V
V
Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
NETWORK PARAMETERS
Impedance parameters (z parameters)
z
11
and z
21 Z
11
and Z
21
+

V
2

I
2

V
1

I
1

Output port : open
I
2
= 0
Input port : Apply voltage source
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
1 11 1
I z V =
0 I
1
1
11
2
I
V
z
=
=
1 21 2
I z V =
0 I
1
2
21
2
I
V
z
=
=
Impedance parameters (z parameters)
z
12
and z
22

V
1

Input port : opened
I
1
= 0
Output port : Apply voltage source
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
2 12 1
I z V =
0 I
2
1
12
1
I
V
z
=
=
2 22 2
I z V =
0 I
2
2
22
1
I
V
z
=
=

V
2

I
2
I
1
=0
+

V
1

Impedance parameters (z parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
Equivalent circuit based on these equations:
+

V
1

+

V
1

I
1

I
2

11
z
22
z
21 1
z I
+

+

12 2
z I
Impedance parameters (z parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL
ammeter
A
V
I
Reciprocal
network
A
V
I
Reciprocal
network
Voltage source and ideal ammeter connected to the
ports are interchangeable
Impedance parameters (z parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL
Voltage source and ideal ammeter connected to the
ports are interchangeable
z
12
= z
21
Can be replaced with T-equivalent circuit:

Z
11
-z
12
Z
22
-z
12
Z
12
+
V
1

+
V
2

Impedance parameters (z parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL
Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL
z
11
= z
22
Impedance parameters (z parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
I z I z V + =
2 22 1 21 2
I z I z V + =
Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL
Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL
If the two-port network is reciprocal and symmetrical, only 2
parameters need to be determined
Admittance parameters (y parameters)
(

=
(

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
V
V
y y
y y
I
I
2 12 1 11 1
V y V y I + =
2 22 1 21 2
V y V y I + =
Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement
Admittance parameters (y parameters)
y
11
and y
21
Output port : shorted
V
2
= 0
Input port : Apply current source
1 11 1
V y I =
0 V
1
1
11
2
V
I
y
=
=
1 21 2
V y I =
0 V
1
2
21
2
V
I
y
=
=
2 12 1 11 1
V y V y I + =
2 22 1 21 2
V y V y I + =
+

V
1

+

V
2
= 0

I
2
I
1

Admittance parameters (y parameters)
y
12
and y
22
Input port : shorted
V
1
= 0
Output port : Apply current source
2 12 1
V y I =
0 V
2
1
12
1
V
I
y
=
=
2 22 2
V y I =
0 V
2
2
22
1
V
I
y
=
=
2 12 1 11 1
V y V y I + =
2 22 1 21 2
V y V y I + =
+

V
1
=0

+

V
2

I
2
I
1

Admittance parameters (y parameters)
Equivalent circuit based on these equations:
2 12 1 11 1
V y V y I + =
2 22 1 21 2
V y V y I + =
+

V
1

+

V
2

I
1
I
2

11
y 22
y
2 12
V y
1 21
V y
Admittance parameters (y parameters)
Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL
Current source and ideal voltmeter connected to the
ports are interchangeable
y
12
= y
21
Can be replaced with t-equivalent circuit:

y
11
+ y
12
y
22
+ y
12
-y
12
+
V
1

+
V
2

2 12 1 11 1
V y V y I + =
2 22 1 21 2
V y V y I + =
Admittance parameters (y parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
V y V y I + =
2 22 1 21 2
V y V y I + =
Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL :
y
11
= y
22

Hybrid parameters (h parameters)
(

=
(

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
V
I
h h
h h
I
V
2 12 1 11 1
V h I h V + =
2 22 1 21 2
V h I h I + =
Some two port network cannot be expressed in terms z or y
parameters but can be expressed in terms of h parameters
Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement
h
11
and h
21
Output port : shorted
V
2
= 0
Input port : Apply current source
1 11 1
I h V =
0 V
1
1
11
2
I
V
h
=
=
1 21 2
I h I =
0 V
1
2
21
2
I
I
h
=
=
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
V h I h V + =
2 22 1 21 2
V h I h I + =
(O)
+

V
1

+

V
2
= 0

I
2
I
1

h
12
and h
22
Input port : opened
I
1
= 0
Output port : Apply voltage source
2 12 1
V h V =
0 I
2
1
12
1
V
V
h
=
=
2 22 2
V h I =
0 I
2
2
22
1
V
I
h
=
=
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
V h I h V + =
2 22 1 21 2
V h I h I + =

V
2

I
2
I
1
=0
+

V
1

(S)
Equivalent circuit based on these equations:
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
V h I h V + =
2 22 1 21 2
V h I h I + =
+

+

V
1

I
1
I
2

+

V
2

h
11
h
11
V
2
h
21
I
1
h
22
Linear network with NO dependent sources: RECIPROCAL
Current source and ideal voltmeter connected to the
ports are interchangeable
h
12
= -h
21
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
V h I h V + =
2 22 1 21 2
V h I h I + =
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)
2 12 1 11 1
V h I h V + =
2 22 1 21 2
V h I h I + =
Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL :
h
11
h
22
h
12
h
21
= 1

Transmission parameters (t parameters)
(

=
(

2
2
1
1
I
V
D C
B A
I
V
2 2 1
BI AV V =
2 2 1
DI CV I =
Used to express the sending end voltage an current in terms
of receiving end voltage and current
+
V
1

I
1

Linear
network
+
V
2

-I
2

I
2
I
1

receiving end
sending end
Output port : opened I
2
= 0
2 1
AV V =
2 1
CV I =
Transmission parameters (h parameters)
2 2 1
BI AV V =
2 2 1
DI CV I =
0 I
2
1
2
V
V
A
=
=
0 I
2
1
2
V
I
C
=
=
Output port : shorted V
2
= 0
2 1
BI V =
2 1
DI I =
0 V
2
1
2
I
V
B
=
=
0 V
2
1
2
I
I
D
=
=
For RECIPROCAL network, AD BC = 1
For SYMMETRICAL network, A = D
Relationships between parameters
If a two-port network can be presented by different set of parameters, then
there exists relationships between parameters.
e.g. relationships between z and y parameters:
(

=
(

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
I
I
z z
z z
V
V
(

=
(

2
1
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
V
V
z z
z z
I
I
We know that
(

=
(

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
V
V
y y
y y
I
I
Therefore
1
22 21
12 11
22 21
12 11
z z
z z
y y
y y

(

=
(

## Relationships between parameters

1
22 21
12 11
z z
z z

(

z
11 21
12 22
z z
z z
A
(

where
21 12 22 11 z
z z z z = A
Therefore,
z
22
11
z
y
A
=
z
12
12
z
y
A
=
z
21
21
z
y
A
=
z
11
22
z
y
A
=
The conversion formulae can be obtained from the conversion table
e.g. on page 869 of Alexander/Sadiku
Relationships between parameters
Interconnection of networks
Complex large network can be modeled with interconnected two-port networks
Simplify the analysis /synthesis
Simplify the design
Parameters of interconnected two-port networks can be obtained easily:
depending on the type of parameters and type of connections:
Series: z parameters
Parallel: y parameters
Cascade: transmission parameters
Interconnection of networks
Series: z parameters
[z] = [z
a
] + [z
b
]
+
V
2a

I
1a

I
1b

I
2a

I
2b

+
V
1b

+
V
1a

+
V
2b

+

V
1

+

V
2

z
a

z
b

z
+
V
2

+
V
1

I
1
I
2

Interconnection of networks
Parallel: y parameters
[y] = [y
a
] + [y
b
]
y
+
V
2

+
V
1

I
1
I
2

I
1a
I
2a

+
V
1b

+
V
1a

+
V
2a

+
V
2b

+
V
1

+
V
2

y
a

y
b

I
1
I
2

I
1b
I
2b

Interconnection of networks
Cascade: t parameters
[t] = [t
a
][t
b
]
t
+
V
2

+
V
1

I
1
-I
2

I
1a
-I
2a

+
V
1b

+
V
1a

+
V
2b

+
V
1

+
V
2

t
a

t
b

I
1
I
1b
-I
2b

+
V
2a

-I
2

NETWORK PARAMETERS
Two-port networks may be connected
in series, in parallel, or in cascade.

In the series connection the z
parameters are added, in the parallel
connection the y parameters are added,
and in the cascade connection the
transmission parameters are multiplied in
the correct order.
APPLICATIONS
The network parameters are
specifically applied in the analysis of
transistor circuits and the synthesis of
ladder LC networks. Network parameters
are especially useful in the analysis of
transistor circuits because these circuits
are easily modeled as two-port networks.
LC ladder networks, important in the
design of passive lowpass filters,
resemble cascaded T networks and are
therefore best analyzed as two-ports.