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CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPOSES (EPR)

What is an EMERGENCY ???

Introduction

An emergency is a situation that comes unexpectedly and suddenly can have dire consequences for the organization. It is not only can effect the organization but sometimes can effect the community around it. Often happens at night, during weekends and holidays when the organization is least prepared for it.

Definition

A sudden occurrence or unstoppable developing event or an imminent threat to the organization due to widespread or severe damage, injury, loss of life or property resulting from natural, technological or human causes.

Identification of threats and hazards


There are three(3) categories : a) Natural events storms, earthquake, floods and etc. b) Technologies events mechanical problems(ruptured pipes, metal fatigue), chemical spills, aircraft crash, fire, explosion and etc. c) Human events i. Human errors ii. Sabotage, terrorism

Emergency situation

Chaotic Responsible people may be not around Panicked Equipment might not work Fuel or materials not available Suppliers are also not available

Why prepare for an emergency ????


Preparation

must be made to prevent that situations !!!!

Organizations

went out of business after an emergency !!!!

Stages of emergency

First stage - before the emergency happens. - period to plan and prepare for an emergency. Second stage - when the emergency is triggered. - period when quick response to the emergency is vital so that the emergency will not escalate into a crisis.

Stages of emergency (cont.)

Third stage - when the emergency is under control or is over. - time to recover and to cleanup.

Level of emergencies

It is useful to categories the levels of emergencies that can happen in an organization as it helps to decide what kind of actions need to be taken for the situation. It categories based on the severity of the accident and the capability of the organization.

Level 1 where the organization can handle the situation with its own capabilities and resources.

Level 2 where external local assistance is required. - such local assistants can be mutual aid arrangements with neighboring organizations, district or other agencies.
Level 3 - where the incident is such a proportion that is becomes a national disaster.

Objective of emergency response


To control, reduce or stop the cause of emergency. ii. To control the situation and limit the secondary damage. iii. To be able to continue operations and recover to normal asap.
i.

Basic elements of EPR


Organize an Emergency management team ii. Identify the accident scenarios and emergency consequences. iii. Identify resources, equipment and facilities. iv. Develop plans and procedures to be used for activities before the emergency and giving the emergency.
i.

Basic elements of EPR (cont.)


v.

vi.

Training and exercises for emergency team members, drills and evaluation. Review system

Emergency management organisations


The emergency management organization is made up of the following : Emergency committee To plan for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery to an emergency. b) Emergency coordinator To coordinate the emergency programme c) Incident command organization To control the emergency when it happens
a)

i. Emergency commitee

Should ideally appointed long-term. Should represent as many functions as possible. The task is to ensure that preparation, implementation, mitigation and evaluation of emergency preparedness and response are undertaken. Will also work with Emergency coordinator.

Example of Emergency Committee

Transportation Maintenance Engineering Public relations Health and safety Environment Finance Security Fire fighting/ rescue and etc.

ii. Emergency coordinator

The task is to administer and keep the current emergency management programme. Should work with Emergency management committee.

iii. Incident command organisation

In Malaysia, National Security Council ( Majlis Keselamatan Negara ) of the Prime Minister Department has issued a directive called MKN 20 in 1997. This document is restricted and designed for government use during public disaster.
(http://www.mkn.gov.my)

Emergency planning
There are three(3) steps to emergency planning :
a)

Identification of threats and hazards to the organisation. - Use imagination, think of the unexpected Assessment of emergency scenario - Include in the scenario impacts to the organisation beyond its control such as :
i. Regional communications loss and national power outage
ii. Transportation disruptions (floods, broken bridge)

b)

Emergency planning (cont.)


c)

Plan for emergency mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

Planning strategies
i.

For emergency
- emergency plans should be capable of dealing with the worst case credible scenario. - plans should also be sufficiently flexible to ensure that an emergency response can be varied according to the severity of the incident.

Planning strategies(cont.)
ii.

For recovery - the objective is to restore functions and continue operation as soon as possible.

Potential impacts of hazards during an emergency


a)

Safety , health and environment - Persons in the effected area - Personnel responding to the incident - Pollution to the environment Business - continuity of operation and delivery of services. - Property, facilities and infrastructure loss - Reputation of the organization - Economic and financial condition

b)