Anda di halaman 1dari 98

PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

(FIRST AID)

Disediakan oleh; Kpt. (KRS) Rohaidah Bakar


Professionally coordinates by: Members and Affiliations:

DOLIDIAS Malaysia No. 21, Jalan P9B/10, Presint 9, 62500 Putrajaya Tel/Fax 03 8881 1925 . Cellphone 012 635 3070 . www.mainayaq.com

First Aid Unit

PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

Professionally coordinates by:

(1)

PENGENALAN
PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

Rawatan sementara waktu yang diberikan kepada mangsa; sebelum tibanya bantuan perubatan. Variasi nama: First Aid Bantu Mula Pertolongan Cemas
Professionally coordinates by:

(1)

PENGENALAN
PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

OBJEKTIF

Menyelamat nyawa Mengelak mangsa cedera lebih serius Mengurangkan kesakitan Menguruskan pemindahan ke hospital

Professionally coordinates by:

(1)

PENGENALAN
PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

APA ITU KECEMASAN?

Sesuatu situasi kritikal yang mengancam nyawa Jika tidak diberi rawatan segera, kesakitan mangsa menjadi lebih serius, lebih mudarat dan mungkin menyebabkan kematian
Professionally coordinates by:

(1)

PENGENALAN
PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

CIRI-CIRI SEORANG PENYELAMAT

Bertanggungjawab Berjiwa cekal, waras dan tenang Mengamati prinsip keselamatan diri Berpengetahuan dan berkeyakinan Terlatih
Professionally coordinates by:

(2)

PERALATAN
PERTOLONGAN CEMAS
11)

ISI KOTAK FIRST AID


1)

2)
3) 4) 5)

6)
7) 8) 9)
Professionally coordinates by:

10)

Termometer Mangkuk Enamel Ubat Cium Asprin Panadol Ubat Melepuh Kain Pembalut Luka Kain Tekap Kapas Gunting

12)

13)
14) 15) 16)

17)
18) 19) 20) 21)

Kain Kapas Pin Semat Elastoplast Ubat Luka Papan Tuap Kain Segitiga Ubat Cuci Mata Pembalut Berelastik Pembalut Pembebat Pembalut Terbuka Adesif Lekat Sendiri

(3)

PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT

Pembebatan digunakan untuk menutup luka dan mengawal pendarahan.

Pembalut dilakukan untuk membantu pembebatan.

Professionally coordinates by:

(3)

PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT

PEMBEBATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(3)

PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT

JENIS KAIN PEMBALUT Pembalut Tiga Segi Pembalut Lebar Pembalut Kecil Pembalut Gulung

Professionally coordinates by:

(3)

PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT

Pembalut Tiga Segi

Professionally coordinates by:

(3)

PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT

Lipatan Tiga Segi

Professionally coordinates by:

4.

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

? Ikatan
? Balutan ? Anduh

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

IKATAN Simpul Sila

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

JENIS BALUTAN LUKA Luka Tangan Luka Dada Luka Bahu Luka Peha Luka Siku Luka Lengan Luka Lutut Luka Jari
Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Tangan

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Tangan

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Tangan


1 2

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Dada

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

Luka di bahagian depan

(4)

Balutan Luka Dada

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

Luka di bahagian belakang

(4)

Balutan Luka Bahu


1

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Peha


1 2

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Siku


1 2

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Lutut

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Lengan

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Balutan Luka Jari

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

3
Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

JENIS ANDUH Anduh Besar Anduh Kecil Anduh Pergelangan Tangan Anduh Menaik

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Anduh Besar

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Anduh Menaik
1 2

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH

Professionally coordinates by:

(4)

Pembalut Cincin
1 2

IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH


3

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS-JENIS LUKA
1) Luka Terhiris

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

2) Luka Terkoyak

Professionally coordinates by:

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

3) Luka Tertikam / Tembus

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

4) Luka Lebam

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

5) Luka Kena Tembak

Professionally coordinates by:

CARA MENAHAN DARAH

Professionally coordinates by:

CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

6) Luka Kecil

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

CARA RAWATAN

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

7) Luka di Perut

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

8) Luka di Dada

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

9) Pendarahan bahagian dalam Telinga

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

4.PATUKAN

ULAR

Di Malaysia terdapat 141 spesis ular, di mana 37 daripadanya adalah berbisa. Terbahagi kepada 21 Ular Laut dan 16 Ular Darat.

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

SIMPTOM / TANDA AWAL


1)

2)

3) 4) 5)

6)
Professionally coordinates by:

Sepasang lubang bekas patukkan. Terasa sakit yang amat pada tempat yang kena patuk. Bengkak dan merah di sekeliling patukkan. Pernafasan yang tercungap-cungap Kemungkinan terhenti pernafasan. Berpeluh dan penglihatan berpinar-pinar.

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

BAHAYA

Patukan ular berbisa bergantung kepada spesis, amaun racun, kedudukan dan kedalaman patukkan.
Boleh membawa kepada maut. Mangsa rasa terkejut dan cemas.


Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

SAIZ PATUKAN

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

KESAN PATUKAN

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

5.TERKELAR,

TERBAKAR DAN MELECUR

Terkelar,

terbakar dan melecur adalah sama keadaannya. Perbezaannya hanya dari segi tahap kecederaan. Kebiasaan terbakar melibatkan kecederaan yang lebih serius daripada melecur.
Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

MELECUR DAN LEBAM Disebabkan terkena: Air panas Minyak panas Wap panas Simptom: Kulit melecur dan kemerahan Bahagian terbakar mengelembung dan bengkak dengan cepat Sakit yang amat sangat

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

CARA RAWATAN
1.

2.

3.

4.
Professionally coordinates by:

Baringkan mangsa di tempat teduh, sejuk dan selesa. Tanggalkan pakaian dan perhiasan pada anggota tercedera seperti; kasut, cincin, jam tangan, dll. Jika serius elakkan beri minuman dan makanan. Hantar ke hospital jika perlu.

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

CARA RAWATAN TERBAKAR RINGAN


1 2

Professionally coordinates by:

6.RENJATAN

ELEKTRIK

Renjatan elektrik boleh menyebabkan maut, mungkin mereka yang cuba membantu turut menemui maut.

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

LANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBIL


Matikan suis atau suis utama dan pastikan elektrik sudah terputus. Menggunakan penebat untuk menyelamatkan mangsa:
1.
2. 3. 4.

5.
6.
Professionally coordinates by:

Gunakan galah yang panjang dan kering Kerusi kayu Tikar getah Kain sal (tuala yang kering) Plastik tebal Tali atau tali nylon yang kering

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

CARA MENGALIH BAHAYA

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

CARA RAWATAN

Sekiranya mangsa tidak bernafas, pulihkan pernafasan dari mulut ke mulut. Jika gagal segera lakukan CPR. Jika ada kesan terbakar beri rawatan terbakar. Segerakan mangsa ke hospital.

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

7.PATAH

& TERSELIUH Kecederaan tulang meliputi patah atau retak. Kemungkinan kecederaan boleh berlaku disebabkan pukulan secara langsung atau tidak langsung, terjatuh dari bangunan yang tinggi, tarikan otot anggota yang tertindih, tembakan atau perlanggaran dan sebagainya.

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS-JENIS PATAH

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

Patah tebu

Patah kayu muda

(5)

JENIS-JENIS PATAH

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

Patah riuk

Patah melarat

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

SIMPTOM Lebam dan bengkak Anggota tidak dapat digerakkan Terluka atau berubah bentuk Tajam/berbonjol pada kulit Sakit

Professionally coordinates by:

CARA RAWATAN

BLANKET LIFT: Preparation

Professionally coordinates by:

CARA RAWATAN

BLANKET LIFT: Rolling On

Professionally coordinates by:

CARA RAWATAN

BLANKET LIFT: Lifting

Professionally coordinates by:

8.TERCEKIK

Professionally coordinates by:

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

9.LEMAS

DI AIR

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

RAWATAN Lakukan pemeriksaan asas seperti, periksa pernafasan dan nadi. Periksa tahap kesedaran, buka salur pernafasan. Jika perlu lakukan CPR.

Professionally coordinates by:

10.KERACUNAN

Apa-apa bahan jika dimasukkan ke dalam kuantiti yang mencukupi boleh mengakibatkan kemudaratan.

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

PUNCA KERACUNAN Mulut makan, minum Paru-paru sedut gas/asap Suntikan gigitan, patukan, jarum Kulit semburan racun perosak

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

RAWATAN 1. Pastikan persekitaran dan diri anda selamat. 2. Alihkan mangsa ke tempat yang selamat. 3. Kesan melecur pada mulut beri minum air atau susu sedikit demi sedikit. 4. Jika sesak nafas, baringkan ke posisi koma. 5. Jika tidak sedar lakukan primary survey.

Professionally coordinates by:

(6)

PEMULIHAN
PERNAFASAN

TEKNIK-TEKNIK
Melalui
1.
2. 3.

3 cara:

Resusitasi secara hembusan (mulut ke mulut) Resusitasi secara tekanan (kardio-pulmonari) Holger Nielson

Professionally coordinates by:

Holger Neilson

(6)

PEMULIHAN
PERNAFASAN

Professionally coordinates by:

Holger Neilson

(6)

PEMULIHAN
PERNAFASAN

Professionally coordinates by:

Professionally coordinates by:

Rescue Breathing

Is a way of breathing air into an unconscious victim who is not breathing but has a pulse.

CPR (on adults & large children) (see handout)

Giving chest compressions.

Position the heel of the right hand on the lower half of the breast bone, right between the nipples. Position left hand on top of the right hand. Position shoulders directly over the hands and push straight down, pushing the breastbone down 1.5 2 inches. After 3 sets of 15 and 2 check for signs of circulation.

15 chest compressions, then 2 breaths.

RICE Treatment

Rest

For 24 to 72 hrs. Longer rest may be required for severe injuries.


Apply for 20 min cycles ASAP after injury occurs. Applying cold helps reduce pain, swelling and inflammation.

Ice

Compression

Wrap the injury to reduce swelling. Make sure it is not too tight! Raise the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling and drain blood and fluid from the area.

Elevation

AED (Automated External Defibrillator)

What is an automated external defibrillator (AED)? An AED is a device about the size of a laptop computer that analyzes the heart's rhythm for any abnormalities and, if necessary, directs the rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim. This shock, called defibrillation, may help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of its own.

AED (Automated External Defibrillator)

How does an AED work? An AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts to instruct the rescuer. Once the machine is turned on, the rescuer will be prompted to apply two electrodes provided with the AED to the victim's chest. Once applied, the AED will begin to monitor the victim's heart rhythm. If a "shockable" rhythm is detected, the machine will charge itself and instruct the rescuer to stand clear of the victim and to press the shock button.

AED (Automated External Defibrillator)


AEDs are required to be in most large public buildings. Such as malls, schools, and stadiums.

Splints
A material or device used to protect and immobilize a body part. A splint should be used only if it can be applied without hurting the victim. Two Types of Splints

Soft splints are made from blankets, towels, sheets, or bandages. Rigid splints are made from rolled-up newspapers or boards.

Appling Splints
Attempt to splint the injury in the position you find it. Make sure it is not too tight! On Fractured Bones

Must include the joint above and below the injured bone.

On Injured Joints

Must include the bone above and below the injured joint.

Slings
Is a wide piece of cloth looped under an inured arm for support. Example: Triangular Bandage

Treatments for Common Injuries

Types Bleeding Wounds

Bruise

Is a wound blood vessels cause bleeding under the skin. Is a cut caused by a sharp-edged object, such a razor, scissors, broken glass. Is a cut that causes a jagged or irregular tearing of the skin.

Incision

Laceration

Types Bleeding Wounds

Abrasion

AKA a scrape, is a wound caused by rubbing or scraping away the skin. Is a wound in which skin or other body tissue is separated or completely torn away from the body.
Is a wound produced when a pointed instrument or projectile pierces the skin. The risk of infection is high with this type of wound.

Avulsion

Puncture

Controlling Bleeding

What is the procedure for controlling bleeding that we covered last class?

Shock
Is a dangerous reduction in blood flow to the body tissues. Signs of shock includerapid, shallow breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness; weakness; and fainting. What is the treatment for shock that we covered last class?

Fractures
Is a break or crack in a bone. Two Types

Open Fracture
There

is also a break in the skin. is no break in the skin.

Closed Fracture
There

Treatment

Treat for bleeding and shock, splint the injury, apply ice.

Dislocations
Is the movement of a bone away from its joint. Treatment

Splint above and below the dislocated joint, apply a cold compress. Never try and set a dislocation!

Sprains and Strains


Sprain is an injury to the ligaments, tendons, and soft tissue around a joint caused by undue stretching. Strain is an overstretching of muscles and/or tendons. Treatment Apply the RICE treatment.

Weather Related Injuries

Heat Cramps are painful muscle spasms in the legs and arms due to excessive fluid loss through sweating.

Treatment have victim rest in a cool, shaded area; drink cool water; and stretch stiff muscles.

Heat Exhaustion is extreme tiredness due to the bodys inability to regulate its temperature.

Treatment have victim lie down with feet elevated in a cool, shaded area; give cool water to drink.

Weather Related Injuries

Heat Stroke is an overheating of the body that is life-threatening. Sweating ceases, so that the body cannot regulate its temperature.

Treatment have victim lie in cool, wet towels or sheets; place ice backs near the neck, armpits, and groin.

Weather Related Injuries

Frostbite is the freezing of body parts, often the tissues of the extremities.

Treatment do not attempt rewarming; handle the affected area carefully and try to keep it warm.

Hypothermia is a reduction of the body temperature so that it is lower than normal.

Treatment move the victim to a warm environment; remove any wet clothing; cover their head with blankets.