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JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI, FAKULTAS TEKNIK UGM UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

Semester 2 Th 2012/2013

PETROLOGI

Klasifikasi Batuan Beku Bagian 1. (Non Fragmental)

Maret 2013

Klasifikasi Batuan Beku

KLASIFIKASI DAN PENAMAAN BATUAN BEKU


Klasifikasi batuan beku dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai cara, antara lain berdasarkan:

Tekstur

Struktur

Komposisi mineralogi
Komposisi kimia

KLASIFIKASI BATUAN BEKU Berdasarkan kejenuhan silika :


Batuan sangat jenuh silika (silica-oversaturated) - Batuan beku yang mengandung silika yang melebihi jumlah yang dibutuhkan untuk membentuk mineral silikat; ditandai dengan munculnya mineral Kuarsa Batuan jenuh silika (silica-saturated) - Batuan beku yang mengandung mineral-mineral yang jenuh silika; kuarsa muncul dalam komposisi Norm-nya Batuan tidak jenuh silika (silica-undersaturated) - Batuan beku yang mengandung mineral-mineral undersaturated terhadap silica, khususnya Feldspatoid dan Olivin

KLASIFIKASI BATUAN BEKU

Berdasarkan kandungan silika (SiO2) :


Asam (acid) - SiO2 : > 66 % - Granit, sienit, diorit kuarsa, trasit Menengah (intermediate) - SiO2 : 52 66 % - Diorit, granodiorit, andesit Basa (basic) - SiO2 : 45 52 % - Gabro, basalt Ultrabasa (ultrabasic) - SiO2 : < 45 % - Peridotit, dunit

KLASIFIKASI BATUAN BEKU


Berdasarkan komposisi mineralogi : Batuan felsik (felsic) - Mineral mafik tidak melimpah sedikit (< 40 %) Batuan mafik (mafic) - Mineral mafik melimpah ( 40 70 %) Batuan ultramafik (ultramafic) - Mineral mafik sangat melimpah (> 90 %)

Mineral felsik - Warna putih, abu-abu, merah muda, rapat jenis rendah - Kuarsa, feldspar, feldspatoid Mineral mafik - Warna gelap, hijau, coklat, hitam, berat jenis tinggi ( > 3,80) - Piroksen, amfibol, olivin, biotit

Felsic: feldspar + silica ~55-70% silica, K-feldspar > 1/3 of feldspars present light-colored silicate minerals Continental crust Intermediate: between felsic and mafic ~55-65% silica, plag > 2/3 of feldspars present Na-rich plag predominates over Ca-rich plag Mafic: magnesium + ferric iron ~45-50% silica; Ca-rich plag dominant feldspar dark silicate minerals Oceanic crust Ultramafic: >90% mafic minerals, silica < 45%, few or no feldspars Mantle-derived

KOMPOSISI MINERALOGI Mineral utama (Essential): - Mineral yang paling menentukan nama batuan - Kelimpahan : melimpah sangat melimpah - Misal : ortoklas, plagioklas dan kuarsa dalam granit Mineral asesori khas (Accessory) - Mineral yang ikut memberi nama batuan - Kelimpahan : cukup melimpah - Misal : hornblenda dalam granit hornblenda

KLASIFIKASI BATUN BEKU Berdasarkan lokasi dan cara terbentuknya :


Batuan pluton Batuan hipabisal

Batuan gunungapi

BATUAN PLUTON
Membeku di tempat yang dalam (abisal), tubuh

intrusi besar (batolit, stok dan pluton-pluton besar lain), membeku perlahan-lahan
Berbutir sangat kasar, medium-kasar; secara lokal

ditemukan tekstur porfiritik; non porfiritik, subhedra atau anhedra

BATUAN HIPABISAL
Mengristal di bawah kondisi yang terpengaruh antara

batuan pluton dan batuan gunungapi, intrusi dangkal kecil, dekat permukaan bumi (hipabisal), pada kerak benua bagian atas, korok, sill, sumbat gunungapi, leher gunungapi atau tubuh yang lebih besar (lakolit) pada tempat yang dangkal, dapat mendingin cukup cepat Pada umumnya berbutir fanerik halus, porfiritik, porfiritik (masadasar halus, tanpa gelas volkanik Bagian tepi intrusi dalam yang mendingin cepat dan menerobos batuan yang dingin dapat mempunyai sifat batuan hipabisal

BATUAN GUNUNGAPI
Membeku cepat, pada atau amat dekat dengan permukaan bumi, afanitik dengan sedikit atau tanpa campuran gelas, sangat halus-gelasan; klastik Kristalisasi fenokris cenderung terjadi pada kisaran suhu yang tinggi, sehingga muncul mineral-mineral yang terbentuk pada suhu tinggi, P rendah (sanidin dan plagioklas suhu tinggi) Fenokris biotit, hornblenda, kuarsa Ada dua fase pendinginan : fase intertelurik di tempat yang dalam (fenokris) dan fase efusif (masadasar afanitik), yaang menghasilkan tekstur porfiritik

Rekomendasi Klasifikasi Batuan Beku


Karena adanya berbagai jenis batuan beku dan berbagai klasifikasi yang ada, salah satu problem dalam klasifikasi batuan beku adalah bahwa batuan ini tidak dapat semuanya diklasifikasikan dengan menggunakan satu metode saja. Akibatnya, beberapa klasifikasi harus dipakai dalam pendeskripsian batuan beku, di mana masing-masing hanya dapat diaplikasikan pada kelompok batuan tertentu, misalnya kelompok batuan piroklastik, batuan plutonik dll. Ini berarti bahwa kita harus memutuskan klasifikasi mana yang sesuai untuk dipakai dalam penamaan suatu batuan yang diteliti.

Untuk mencapai tujuan ini secara konsisten, maka dirumuskan suatu bentuk klasifikasi yang bersusun (hierarchy of classification) yang harus disetujui bersama
Berikut adalah urutan alur yang diusulkan yang diharapkan dapat diterima

oleh mayoritas ahli geologi

Urutan Pemakaian Klasifikasi Batuan Beku Yang Direkomendasikan (versi original)


Has the rock pyroclastic features? [NO] Carbonates > 50 %? [NO] see classification for melilitic, kalsilitic, leucitic rocks and kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres [NO] Is it charnockitic? [NO] Is it plutonic? YES => [NO] Is it volcanic? YES => YES => YES => Use pyroclastic rock classification Use carbonatite classification Flow chart for melilitic, kalsilitic, leucitic rocks... and lamprophyres

=> =>

YES => M < 90 %? YES => [NO] =>

Use charnockite classification Use plutonic QAPF Use ultramafic classification

Mode possible? YES => Use volcanic QAPF [NO] Is it high-Mg? YES => Use high-Mg classification [NO] Use TAS. If it falls in fields F or U1, use norm ne v. norm ab classification *

If you get to this point, either the rock is not _____=>____ igneous or you have made a serious <= [NO] mistake.

http://www.geol.lsu.edu

Urutan Pemakaian Klasifikasi Batuan Beku Yang Direkomendasikan (versi Indonesia)


Apakah batuan piroklastik? [NO] M < 90 %? YES => Apakah batuan plutonik? YES => [NO] [NO] => Jumlah fenokris cukup untuk klasifikasi Modal (Mode)? YES => [NO] => Pakai klasifikasi QAPF untuk batuan plutonik Pakai klasifikasi untuk batuan ultramafik Pakai klasifikasi volcanic QAPF YES => Pakai klasifikasi untuk batuan piroklastik

Apakah batuan vulkanik? YES =>

[NO] Bukan batuan beku ?

Pakai klasifikasi kimia TAS

Modifikasi dari http://www.geol.lsu.edu

1. Klasifikasi Batuan Piroklastik

(a) Based on type of material. After Pettijohn (1975) Sedimentary Rocks, Harper & Row, and Schmid (1981) Geology, 9, 40-43. (b) Based on the size of the material. After Fisher (1966) Earth Sci. Rev., 1, 287-298.

2. Klasifikasi Batuan Plutonik


2.A. Klasifikasi Batuan Beku Fanerit yang Baku adalah Klasifikasi QAPF dari IUGS (Streckeisen, 1976)
Alkali Fs. Quartz Syenite Alkali Fs. Syenite
5 10 20 60

Quartzolite
90 90

Quartz-rich Granitoid
60

Granite

Granodiorite

20

Quartz Syenite

Quartz Monzonite
35

Quartz Monzodiorite
65

Qtz. Diorite/ Qtz. Gabbro


5 Diorite/Gabbro/

Syenite
(Foid)-bearing Syenite

A Syarat: 1. Batuan harus mengandung minimal total mineral Plagioklas, Ortoklas dan Kuarsa (atau Feldspatoid) minimal 10% 2. Jumlah mineral-mineral tersebut dinormalisasi ke 100%
10

Monzonite (Foid)-bearing Monzonite

Monzodiorite
(Foid)-bearing Monzodiorite

90

Anorthosite

P
10 (Foid)-bearing Diorite/Gabbro

(Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. Syenite (Foid) Monzosyenite (Foid) Monzodiorite

60

60

(Foid)olites

A classification of the phaneritic igneous rocks. a. Phaneritic rocks with more than 10% (quartz + feldspar + feldspathoids). After IUGS.
F

2. B. Klasifikasi IUGS untuk Batuan Beku Fanerit yang Mafik (b) dan Ultramafik (c) Plagioclase
Batuan Mafik (Gabbroit)
Anorthosite
90

A classification of the phaneritic igneous rocks. b. Gabbroic rocks. c. Ultramafic rocks. After IUGS.

Ga bb ro

Batuan Ultramafik
lite cto Tro

Olivine
Dunite
90

(c)

Olivine gabbro

Peridotites
Plagioclase-bearing ultramafic rocks

Lherzolite
40

Pyroxene

(b)

Olivine
Olivine Websterite
10

Orthopyroxenite

Pyroxenites

10

Orthopyroxene

Websterite Clinopyroxenite

Clinopyroxene

3. Klasifikasi Batuan Beku Afanit (Vulkanik) yang Baku adalah dari IUGS (Streckeisen, 1976)
60 60

Rhyolite

Dacite

Syarat: 1. Batuan harus mengandung minimal total mineral Plagioklas, Ortoklas dan Kuarsa (atau Feldspatoid) minimal 10% 2. Jumlah mineral-mineral tersebut dinormalisasi ke 100%

20

20

Trachyte

Latite
35

Andesite/Basalt
65

A
10

(foid)-bearing Trachyte

(foid)-bearing Latite

(foid)-bearing Andesite/Basalt

10

Phonolite

Tephrite

A classification and nomenclature of volcanic rocks. After IUGS.


60 60

(Foid)ites

Secara umum, penamaan batuan vulkanik non-piroklastik adalah

berdasarkan komposisi mineral penyusunnya, dengan menggunakan klasifikasi QAPF yang disusun oleh Streckeisen (1967). Namun, jika prosentasi modal mineral yang disyaratkan untuk klasifikasi tersebut tidak dipenuhi, maka klasifikasi tersebut tidak bisa digunakan. Kandungan mineral sering tidak bisa ditentukan secara prosentase modal karena kehadiran mineral berukuran halus atau karena kehadiran material gelasan. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut , maka IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks membuat rekomendasi untuk membuat berdasarkan diagram Total Alkali Silika atau dikenal sebagai diagram TAS (Le Bass dkk., 1986). Klasifikasi ini dipakai jika 1) analisa kimia yang valid diperoleh, 2) analisis modal mineral tidak diperoleh dan 3) tidak berlaku untuk batuan vulkanik piroklastik. Baca tentang klasifikasi batuan vulkanik di http://geologi.ugm.ac.id/ind/news.php?readmore=39)

3.B. Klasifikasi TAS (Total Alkali Silica) untuk Batuan Vulkanik

A chemical classification of volcanics based on total alkalis vs. silica. After Le Bas et al. (1986) J. Petrol., 27, 745-750. Oxford University Press.

COMPOSITION (Minerals Present) Ultramafic Olivine (Pyroxene) Mafic CaPlagioclase Pyroxene Olivine GABBRO BASALT Intermediate NaPlagioclase Amphibole Pyroxene Biotite DIORITE ANDESITE Intermediate Na-Plagioclase Amphibole Quartz Biotite GRANODIORITE DACITE OBSIDIAN SCORIA PUMICE Felsic Quartz Orthoclase Biotite Na-Plagioclase GRANITE RHYOLITE

TEXTURES

Coarsegrained* Finegrained* Glassy Vesicular

DUNITE

Fragmental TUFF (Pyroclastic) *Some igneous roc ks have a porphyritic texture. If a rock has 2 grain sizes, the rock is named after the smaller grain size and the word porphyritic is added as an adjective. For example, if a rock is predominantly fine -grained and maf ic , it would be a basalt. If phenocrysts are present in the finegrained matrix, this rock would be called a porphyritic basalt.

KLASIFIKASI BATUAN BEKU

(Fenton, 1940)

Composition of Igneous Rocks

Schminke (2004)

Batuan Intrusif (Plutonik)


Granite is a coarse-grained, light colored, intrusive igneous rock that contains mainly quartz and feldspar minerals. The specimen above is about two inches (five centimeters) across. Diorite is a coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock that contains a mixture of feldspar, pyroxene, hornblende and sometimes quartz. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Batuan Intrusif (Plutonik)


Gabbro : is a coarse-grained, dark colored, intrusive igneous rock that contains feldspar, augite and sometimes olivine. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across. Peridotite : is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock that is composed almost entirely of olivine. It may contain small amounts of amphibole, feldspar, quartz or pyroxene. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Acid, late phase intrusive rocks


Pegmatite : is a light-colored, extremely coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock. It forms near the margins of a magma chamber during the final phases of magma chamber crystallization. It often contains rare minerals that are not found in other parts of the magma chamber. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Aplite: very fine-grained, white, grey or pinkish intrusive rock dominated by quartz and feldspar. Dykes of aplite are commonly observed traversing granitic bodies.

Granite

Aplite

Intrusive Rock
Syenite : coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock of the same general composition as granite but lack in quartz. Feldspar is dominated by orthoclase

Monzonite : intrusive rock with approximately equal amounts of plagioclase and alkali feldspar, with less than 5% quartz by weight.

Granodiorit
Granodiorite : intrusive igneous rock similar to granite, but containing more plagioclase than orthoclase-type feldspar. It usually contains abundant biotite mica and hornblende, giving it a darker appearance than true granite.

Tonalit
Tonalite : intrusive rock of felsic composition, phaneritic texture, contains plagioclase (typically oligoclase or andesine) with 10% or less alkali feldspar. Quartz is present as more than 20% of the rock. Amphiboles and pyroxenes are common accessory minerals. In older references tonalite is sometimes used as a synonym for quartz diorite. However the current IUGS classification defines tonalite as having greater than 20% quartz and quartz diorite with from 5 to 20% quartz.

Catatan: banyak intrusi dangkal berukuran stock Tersier di Indonesia yang dideskripsikan sebagai tonalit. Tonalit umumnya memiliki tekstur faneroporfiritik.

Ultramafic Intrusive Rocks


Dunite : ultramafic plutonic rock, phaneritic texture, with composition is > 90% olivine, with minor amounts of other minerals such as pyroxene.

Peridotite : coarse-grained ultramafic igneous rock, consisting mostly of olivine and pyroxene.

Ultramafic Intrusive Rocks


Pyroxenite : ultramafic igneous rock consisting essentially of minerals of the pyroxene group, such as augite and diopside, hypersthene, bronzite or enstatite. Hornblendite : rare ultramafic plutonic rock consisting mainly of the amphibole hornblende.

Anorthosite : phaneritic, intrusive ultramafic igneous rock characterized by a predominance of calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar (90100%), and a minimal mafic component (010%) such as pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine.

Carbonatites : intrusive or extrusive igneous rocks defined by mineralogic composition of > 50 % carbonate minerals.

Batuan Vulkanik
Diabase / dolerite : a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro; dominated by plagioclase and pyroxene.
Andesite : is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. The specimen shown is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Batuan Vulkanik
Rhyolite : light-colored, fine-grained, felsic extrusive igneous rock that typically contains quartz and feldspar minerals.
Obsidian : extrusive igneous rock of intermediate-acid composition, forms when magma cools so rapidly that atoms are unable to arrange themselves into a crystalline structure. The result is a volcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a conchoidal fracture.

Batuan Vulkanik
Pumice : light-colored vesicular igneous rock, forms through very rapid solidification of acidintermediate magma. The vesicular texture is a result of gas trapped in the melt at the time of solidification.

Scoria : dark-colored igneous rock with abundant round cavities known as vesicles. It ranges in color from black or dark gray to deep reddish brown. Scoria usually has a composition basalt, but can also andesite.

Batuan Vulkanik
Basalt : dark-colored, fine-grained, mafic igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene minerals. It most commonly forms as an extrusive rock, such as a lava flow, but can also form in small intrusive bodies, such as an igneous dike or a thin sill.

Komatiite : ultramafic volcanic rock with low silicon, potassium and aluminium, and high to extremely high magnesium content.

Lamprofir
Lamprophyre : uncommon, small volume ultrapotassic igneous rocks primarily occurring as dikes, lopoliths, laccoliths, stocks and small intrusions. They are alkaline silicaundersaturated, ultramafic rocks with high magnesium oxide, >3% potassium oxide, high sodium oxide and high nickel and chromium.

Lamprophyre dyke

Feldspatoid Igneous Rocks


Nepheline-bearing rock

Leucite-bearing rock

Feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. They occur in rare and unusual types of igneous rocks, both intrusive and vulcanic.

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