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IMPROVING ACHIEVEMENT AND CLOSING GAPS: Lessons from Schools and Districts on the Performance Frontier

Baltimore County Public Schools Timonium, MD March, 2013

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America: Two Enduring Stories

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1. Land of Opportunity:
Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.

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2. Generational Advancement:
Through hard work, each generation of parents can assure a better life and better education for their children.

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Powerful narratives.
No longer true.

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Within the U.S., income inequality has been rising.

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Earnings among the lowest income families have declined, even amid big increases at the top.
80%

Percent Growth in Mean Family Income Constant Dollars, 1980-2010

60%

40%

78%

51%
20%

25%
0%

5% -7%

14%

-20%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Top 20%

Top 5%

Source: The College Board, Trends in College Pricing 2011 (New York: College Board, 2010), Figure 16A.

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Instead of being the most equal, the U.S. has the third highest income inequality among OECD nations.
1.00

0.90
0.80
Gini Coefficient

0.70

United States

0.60
0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00

Note: Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates total income equality and 1 indicates total income inequality.

Source: United Nations, U.N. data, http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?q=gini&id=271: 2011

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Not just wages, but mobility as well.

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Up until about 1980, we were getting ever better as a country at delivering on the promise of opportunity for all...

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US intergenerational mobility was getting better until 1980, but gotten much worse since
0.6 Earnings Elasticity
The falling elasticity meant increased economic mobility until 1980. Since then, the elasticity has risen and mobility has slowed

0.4 0.58 0.2 0.4 0.46

0.35

0.34

0.33

0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Aaronson and Mazumder. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.. 1940-2000. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP 2005-12: Dec. 2005.

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Now, instead of being the land of opportunity, the US has one of lowest rates of intergenerational mobility
Cross-country examples of the link between father and son wages
0.6 Earnings Elasticity

0.4 0.5 0.2

0.47

0.41 0.32

0.27

0.19

0.18

0.17

0.15

0 UK US France Germany Sweden Canada Finland Norway Denmark

Hertz, Tom. Understanding Mobility in America. Center for American Progress: 2006.

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At macro level, better and more equal education is not the only thing we have to do to improve opportunity and mobility in America.
But at the individual level, it really is.

n/a

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What schools and colleges do, in other words, is hugely important to our economy, our democracy, and our society.

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So, how are we doing?

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First, some good news.


After more than a decade of fairly flat achievement and stagnant or growing gaps in K-12, we appear to be turning the corner with our elementary students.

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Fourth-Grade Reading: NAEP LTT Record performance with gap narrowing


9-Year Olds NAEP Reading
250 240 230

Average Scale Score

220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150

African American

Latino

White

1971* 1975* 1980* 1984* 1988* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008
*Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

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Fourth-Grade Math: NAEP LTT Record performance with gap narrowing


9-Year Olds NAEP Math
250
240 230

Average Scale Score

220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150

African American

Latino 2004

White 2008

1973* 1978* 1982* 1986* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999*


*Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

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Looked at differently (and on the other NAEP exam)

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1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math


By Race/Ethnicity Nation
100% 90% 80%

3% 24%

7% 26% 32%

Percentage of Students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

49% 73% 61% 26%

Proficient/Advanced

Basic
Below Basic

African American

Latino

White

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

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2011 NAEP Grade 4 Math


By Race/Ethnicity Nation
100% 90% 80%

17%

24% 52%

Percentage of Students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

49% 48%

Proficient/Advanced

Basic
Below Basic
39% 34% 28% 9%

African American
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

Latino

White

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More low-income students are performing at higher levels today than in 1996.
Lower Income Students Grade 4 NAEP Math
100% 90% 80%

7% 24% 33%

Percentage of Students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

48%

Proficient/Advanced Basic Below Basic

60% 27%

1996
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

2011

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Middle grades are up, too.

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8th Grade Reading: Some improvement and gap closing


National Public Grade 8 NAEP Reading
300 290 280

Average Scale Score

270
260 250 240 230 220 210 200

272 265 247 238 236 253 251 248 African American Latino White American Indian/Alaska Native 1992* 1994* 1998 2002 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011

*Accommodations not permitted

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 281)

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8th Grade Math: Especially over the last decade, all groups have steadily improved and gaps have narrowed
National Public Grade 8 NAEP Math
310
300 290

293

Average Scale Score

280

269
270 260 250 240 230 220 210

269 263 266 262 African American

245

236

Latino White American Indian/Alaska Native

1990*

1992*

1996

2000

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

*Accommodations not permitted Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

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Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school.


Too many students still enter high school way behind.

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But at least we have some traction on elementary and middle school problems.
The same is NOT true of our high schools.

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Achievement is flat in reading.


17-Year-Olds Overall - NAEP
340 330 320

Average Scale Score

310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240

1984

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1999

2004

2008

Source: NAEP Long-Term Trends, NCES (2004)

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Math achievement is flat over time.


17-Year-Olds Overall - NAEP
350 340 330

Average Scale Score

320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250

1973* 1978* 1982* 1986* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999*


* Denotes previous assessment format Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress

2004

2008

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And gaps between groups are mostly wider today than in the late 80s and early 90s.

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12th-Grade Reading: No progress, gaps wider than 1988


17-Year-Olds NAEP Reading
320 310 300

Average Scale Score

290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220

African American

Latino

White 2008

1971* 1975* 1980* 1984* 1988* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004
*Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

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12th-Grade Math: Results mostly flat, gaps same or widening


17 Year Olds NAEP Math
340 330 320

Average Scale Score

310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240

African American

Latino

White

1973* 1978* 1982* 1986* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999*


*Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

2004

2008

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Moreover, no matter how you cut the data, our students arent doing well compared with their peers in other countries.

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Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 12th in reading literacy.


550

2009 PISA - Reading U.S.A. OECD

Average Scale Score

500

450

400

350

300

Higher than U.S. average


Source: Highlights from PISA 2009, NCES, 2010

Not measurably different from U.S. average

Lower than U.S. average

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Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 17th in science.


600

2009 PISA - Science U.S.A. OECD

Average scale score

550

500

450

400

350

Higher than U.S. average


Source: Highlights from PISA 2009, NCES, 2010

Not measurably different from U.S. average

Lower than U.S. average

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Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 25th in math.


600

2009 PISA - Math

Average scale score

550

OECD

U.S.A.

500

450

400

350

Higher than U.S. average


Source: Highlights from PISA 2009, NCES, 2010

Not measurably different from U.S. average

Lower than U.S. average

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Only place we rank high?

Inequality.

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Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fourth largest science gap between high-SES and low-SES students.
2006 PISA - Science
600

U.S.A.

OECD

Gap in Average Scale Score

550

500

450

400

350

Source: PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b

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Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fifth largest reading gap between high-SES and low-SES students.
2009 PISA Reading
600

U.S.A.

OECD

550 Gap in Average Scale Score

500

450

400

350

Source: PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.1

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Gaps in achievement begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door.


But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.

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How?
By giving students who arrive with less, less in school, too.

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Some of these lesses are a result of choices that policymakers make.

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Funding Gaps Between States


Gap $2,278 per student $2,330 per student

High-Poverty versus Low-Poverty States High-Minority versus Low-Minority States

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Funding Gaps Within States: National inequities in state and local revenue per student
Gap $773 per student $1,122 per student

High-Poverty versus Low-Poverty Districts High-Minority versus Low-Minority Districts

Source: Education Trust analyses of U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the 2005-06 school year.

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In truth, though, some of the most devastating lesses are a function of choices that educators make.

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Choices we make about what to expect of whom.....

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Students in poor schools receive As for work that would earn Cs in affluent schools.
100 87

Seventh-Grade Math

Percentile - CTBS4

56 35 34 41 22 21 11 0 A B Grades C D

Low-poverty schools

High-poverty schools

Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes, PES, DOE, 1997.

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Students of color are underrepresented in gifted and talented programs.


Percentage of students
100%

5%

10% Asian 62% White Latino African American

80%

49%
60%

40%

25%
20%

16%
19% 10%

0%

Overall Enrollment

Gifted and Talented Enrollment

Source: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection

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Choices we make about what to teach whom

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Even African-American students with high math performance in fifth grade are unlikely to be placed in algebra in eighth grade
Percentage of students who were in the top two quintiles of math performance in fifth grade and in algebra in eighth grade
100%

94%

80%

68%
60%

63%

40%

35%

20%

0%

African American

Latino

White

Asian

Source: NCES, Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) (2010).

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Students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer physics.
Percent of schools offering Physics
100

80
66 60 40 20 0 High schools with the highest African-American and Latino enrollment High schools with the lowest African-American and Latino enrollment 40

Source: U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection, March 2012

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Students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer calculus.
Percent of Schools Offering Calculus

Schools with the Fewest Black and Latino Students

55%

Schools with the Most Black and Latino Students

29%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Source: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights , Civil Rights Data Collection

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And choices we make about who teaches whom

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Students at high-minority schools more likely to be taught by novice* teachers.

Note: High minority school: 75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school: 10% or fewer of the students are non-White students. Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience.
Source: Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007.

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Math classes at high-poverty, high-minority secondary schools are more likely to be taught by out-of-field* teachers.
Percent of Class Taught by Teachers With Neither Certification nor Major

30% 25% 22%

High Low

11%

13%

0% Poverty Minority

Note: High-poverty school: 55 percent or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. Low-poverty school :15 percent or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. High-minority school: 78 percent or more of the students are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school : 12 percent or fewer of the students are non-white students. *Teachers with neither certification nor major. Data for secondary-level core academic classes (math, science, social studies, English) across the U.S. Source: Education Trust Analysis of 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey data.

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Tennessee: High-poverty/high-minority schools have fewer of the most effective teachers and more least effective teachers.
25
Percent of Teachers
23.8% 21.3%

20 15 10 5

17.6%

16%
Most Effective Teachers
Least Effective Teachers

0 High-poverty/highminority schools Low-poverty/low-minority schools

Note: High poverty/high minority means at least 75 percent of students qualify for FRPL and at least 75 percent are minority. Source: Tennessee Department of Education 2007. Tennessees Most Effective Teachers: Are they assigned to the schools that need them most? http://tennessee.gov/education/nclb/doc/TeacherEffectiveness2007_03.pdf.

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Los Angeles: Black, Latino students have fewer highly effective teachers, more weak ones.
Latino and black students are:
READING/LANGUAGE ARTS

as
likely to get highly effective teachers

3X as
likely to get loweffectiveness teachers

Source: Education TrustWest, Learning Denied, 2012.

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The results are devastating.


Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind.

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African-American and Latino 17-year-olds do math at the same levels as white 13-year-olds.
100%
Percent of Students 0% 200 250 300 350

Average Scale Score


White 13-Year-Olds African-American 17-Year-Olds Latino 17-Year-Olds

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress

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African-American and Latino 17-year-olds read at the same levels as white 13-year-olds.
100%
Percent of Students 0% 150 200 250 300 350

Average Scale Score


White 13-Year-Olds African-American 17-Year-Olds Latino 17-Year-Olds

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress

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And these are the students who remain in school through 12th grade.

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Students of color are less likely to graduate from high school on time.
Class of 2009
100%

Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate

92% 82%

80%

64%
60%

66%

65%

40%

20%

0%

African American

Latino

White

Asian

Native American

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 200 8-09 (2011).

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Add it all up and throw in college entry and completion rates, and

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Different groups of young Americans obtain degrees at very different rates.

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Whites attain bachelors degrees at twice the rate of blacks and three times the rate of Hispanics.
Bachelors Degree Attainment of Young Adults (25-29-year-olds), 2011

2x
39% 20%
White African American

3x
13%
Latino
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Source: NCES, Condition of Education 2010 and U.S. Census Bureau, Educational Attainment in the United States: 2011.

Young people from high-income families earn bachelors degrees at seven times the rate of those from 90% low-income families.
Bachelors Degree attainment by Age 24
80%

70%
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

7x
11%
2010

79%

0%

Lowest Income Quartile

Highest Income Quartile

Source: Postsecondary Education Opportunity, Bachelors Degree Attainment by Age 24 by Family Income Quartiles, 1970 to 2010.

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These rates threaten the health of our democracy.


But even for those who dont care much about that, the rates are particularly worrisome, given which groups are growing and which arent.

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Changing demographics demand greater focus on underrepresented populations.


Population Increase, Ages 024, (in thousands)
31,337

Percentage Increase, Ages 024


137% African American Asian Latino 50% Native American White -9%

96%

2,312

4,431 669

15%

-5,516

Closing racial gaps in degree attainment will create more than half the degrees necessary to raise America to first in the world in degree attainment.
Note: Projected Population Growth, Ages 024, 2010-2050 Source: National Population Projections, U.S. Census Bureau. Released 2008; NCHEMS, Adding It Up, 2007.

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Though no longer #1, were still relatively strong in overall educational attainment
Percentage of residents aged 25-64 with a postsecondary degree
100%

80%

United States OECD Average

60%

40%

20%

0%

Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

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But our world standing drops to 15th for younger adults


Percentage of residents aged 25-34 with a postsecondary degree
100%

80% United States 60% OECD Average

40%

20%

0%

Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

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Were near the bottom in intergenerational progress


Difference in percentage of residents aged 45-54 and those aged 25-34 with a postsecondary degree
100%

80%

60%
OECD Average United States 20%

40%

0%

Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

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What Can We Do?


A lot of Americansincluding a lot of educatorsdont think there is anything we CAN do.

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What we hear many say:


Theyre poor. Their parents dont care. They come to school without breakfast. They dont have enough books. They dont have enough parents.

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But if theres truly nothing that we can do, why are low-income students and students of color performing so much higher in some schools?

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Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School


New Orleans, Louisiana

341 students in grades PK 6


97% African American

88% Low Income

Note: Enrollment and demographic data are from 2009-2010 Source: Louisiana Department of Education

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Big Gains at Bethune Elementary


Students Overall Grade 5 Math
100%

Percentage Basic or Above

80%

75% 67% 59% 41% Bethune Louisiana

60%

40%

20%

0%

2007
Source: Louisiana Department of Education

2011

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Exceeding State Averages at Bethune Elementary


African-American Students All Grades (2009)
100%

86% Percentage Basic or Above


80%

90%

60%

58% 52% Bethune Louisiana

40%

20%

0%

English Language Arts


Sourc Louisiana Department of Education e:

Math

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Outperforming the State at Bethune Elementary


Students Overall Grade 5 Social Studies (2011)
100% 90% 80%

4% 19% 15%

Percentage of Students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

44%

Advanced
46%

Mastery Basic Approaching Basic Unsatisfactory

28% 6% 3%

20% 14%

Bethune
Source: Source:Louisiana Department of Education

Louisiana

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Halle Hewetson Elementary School


Las Vegas, NV

962 students in grades PK 5


85% Latino 7% African American

100% Low Income 71% Limited English Proficient


Note: Data are for 2010-2011 school year Source: Nevada Department of Education

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Big Improvement at Halle Hewetson Elementary


Latino Students Grade 3 Reading
100%

Percentage Meets Standards and Above

80%

78%

60%

50%
40%

Hewetson Nevada

26%
20%

7%
0%

2004
Source: Nevada Department of Education

2010

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Exceeding Standards at Halle Hewetson Elementary


Low-Income Students Grade 3 Math (2011)
100%

29%
80%

Percentage of Students

63%
60%

33%
40%

Exceeds Standards Meets Standards Approaches Standards Emergent/Developing

20%

28% 6% 4%

25%

14%

0%

Halle Hewetson
Source: Nevada Department of Education

Nevada

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Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High


Elmont, New York

1,895 students in grades 7-12


77% African American 13% Latino

25% Low-Income

Source: New York Department of Education

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Outperforming the State at Elmont


Secondary-Level English (2010)
100%

95%

96%

93%

Percentage Meeting Standards or Above

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

79%
73% 67%

Elmont New York

All Students
New York State Department of Education

African American Students

Low-Income Students

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Improvement and High Performance at Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High


African-American Students Secondary-Level Math
100%

93%

96%

93%

93%

96%

Percentage Meeting Standards or Above

90%

85%

80%
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

46%

51%

55%

57%

61%

64%

Elmont New York

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

New York State Department of Education

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High Graduation Rates at Elmont Memorial High School


Class of 2010
Percentage of 2006 Freshmen Graduating in Four Years
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

96% 73%

98% 89%

99%

95% 80% 64%

58%

57%
Elmont New York

Overall

African American

Latino

Economically Not Disadvantaged Economically Disadvantaged

Source: New York State Department of Education

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Available from Harvard Education Press and amazon.com

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Some districts

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DC, Boston, and Charlotte showed the most improvement for Latino students between 2003 and 2011
Latino Students NAEP TUDA Grade 4 Reading
District of Columbia (DCPS)

17

Boston

13

Charlotte

10

National Public

6
0 5 10 15 20

Change in Mean Scale Score, 2003-2011


Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations . Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer

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African-American students in Atlanta and Boston improved at twice the rate of their counterparts nationally
African-American Students NAEP TUDA Grade 8 Math
Boston

21

Atlanta

21

Chicago

15

National Public

10
0 5 10 15 20 25

Change in Mean Scale Score, 2003-2011


Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations . Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer

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Bottom line: At every level of education, some getting much better results than others.
There is no question that the kids can do this, the questions are about us.

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Baltimore County Public Schools

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Rising proficiency rates in Baltimore County


Students Overall MSA Grade 4 Reading
100% 90%

Percent proficient or advanced

80% 70%

87%

89%

91%

93%

60%
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2009

2010

2011

2012

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaTrends.aspx?PV=1:4:03:AAAA:2:N:0:13:1:2:1:1:1:1:3.

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Flat math performance in Baltimore County


Students Overall MSA Grade 8 Math
100% 90%

Percent proficient or advanced

80% 70%

82%

81%

84%

82%

60%
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2009

2010

2011

2012

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaTrends.aspx?PV=1:4:03:AAAA:2:N:0:13:1:2:1:1:1:1:3.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Proficiency in algebra rose slightly since 2008


Students Overall HSA Algebra
100% 90%

Percent proficient or advanced

80% 70%

83%

85%

85%

85%

86%

60%
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaTrends.aspx?PV=1:4:03:AAAA:2:N:0:13:1:2:1:1:1:1:3.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Small gains in English proficiency since 2008


Students Overall HSA English
100% 90%

Percent proficient or advanced

80% 70%

80%

84%

84%

85%

85%

60%
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaTrends.aspx?PV=1:4:03:AAAA:2:N:0:13:1:2:1:1:1:1:3.

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But gaps persist. (Keep your eyes on the green: best estimate of proficiency rates post Common Core)

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Students of color half as likely as white students to score at advanced level in reading
MSA - Grade 4 Reading (2012)
100% 90% 80%

22% 52%

28% 53%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50%

Advanced
66% 61% 43%

Proficient Basic

40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

45%

4%

12%

11%

3%

White

African-American

Latino

Asian
2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaResults.aspx?PV=1:4:03:AAAA:2:N:6:13:1:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Low-income students far less likely to have advanced reading skills in BCPS
MSA Grade 4 Reading (2012)
100% 90% 80%

22% 53%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

Advanced
67%

Proficient Basic
43%

20% 10%

11%
0%

4%

Low Income

Not Low Income


2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaResults.aspx?PV=1:8:03:AAAA:2:N:0:5:2:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Half of BCPSs African-American students score at the basic level in math, only one in 7 scores at Advanced
MSA - Grade 8 Math (2012)
100% 90% 80%

13% 25% 43% 38% 39% 63%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Advanced Proficient Basic

38% 49% 36% 20% 9% 28%

White

African-American

Latino

Asian
2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaResults.aspx?PV=1:4:03:AAAA:2:N:6:13:1:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Low-income students 2.5 times as likely to be at the basic level in math


MSA - Grade 8 Math (2012)
100% 90% 80%

14% 44% 40%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Advanced Proficient
35% 46% 20%

Basic

Low Income

Not Low Income


2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaResults.aspx?PV=1:8:03:AAAA:2:N:0:5:2:1:0:1:1:1:3.

One in eight African-American students and one in six Latinos performs at the advanced level in HSA Algebra (2012) Algebra
100% 90% 80%

12% 37%

16% 50%

Percent of students

70% 60%

67%
50% 40%

Advanced
71%

Proficient Basic
46%

55%
30% 20% 10% 0%

22%

8%

13%

4%

White

African-American

Latino

Asian
2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaHighResults.aspx?PV=45:12:03:AAAA:1:N:6:13:2:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Low-income students less than half as likely to perform at advanced level in algebra
HSA Algebra (2012)
100% 90% 80%

14% 32%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

68% 56%

Advanced Proficient Basic

19%

11%

Low Income

Not Low Income


2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaHighResults.aspx?PV=45:12:03:AAAA:1:N:6:13:2:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Students of color far less likely to score at the advanced level in English
HSA English (2012)
100% 90% 80%

12% 38%

17% 39%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

67% 69% 53% 51%

Advanced Proficient Basic

21% 10%

13%

10%

0%

White

African-American

Latino

Asian
2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaHighResults.aspx?PV=45:12:03:AAAA:1:N:6:13:2:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Low-income high school students twice as likely to score at basic level in English
HSA English (2012)
100% 90% 80%

13%
33%

Percent of students

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

67% 56%

Advanced Proficient Basic

21%

11%

Low Income

Not Low Income


2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/MsaHighResults.aspx?PV=45:12:03:AAAA:1:N:6:13:2:1:0:1:1:1:3.

Gaps in graduation rates, coursetaking, and college-going in Baltimore County

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Most Baltimore County students graduate on time


Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2012)
100%

84%
80%

Graduation rate

60%

40%

20%

0%
Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card, http://mdreportcard.org/CohortGradRate.aspx?PV=160:12:03:XXXX:1:N:0:13:1:1:0:1:1:1:3.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Students of color less likely to graduate on time


100%

Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2012)


92% 86% 81%

Graduation Rate

80%

73%

60%

40%

20%

0%

White

African-American

Latino

Asian

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/CohortGradRate.aspx?PV=160:12:03:XXXX:1:N:6:13:1:1:0:1:1:1:3&SORT=2.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Low-income students less likely to graduate on time


100%

Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2012)


87% 77%

80%

Graduation Rate

60%

40%

20%

0%

Low-Income

Higher Income

Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card , http://mdreportcard.org/CohortGradRate.aspx?PV=160:12:03:XXXX:1:N:0:5:1:1:0:1:1:1:3&SORT=2.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Nearly 9 in 10 graduates meet course requirements for admissions to state university system, but few students complete a rigorous high school program.
100%

Class of 2012
72%

80%

Percent of graduates

60%

40%

20%

15% 8%

20%

0%

University System of Career and technology Both University and Maryland course education program career/technology requirements requirements requirements

Rigorous high school program indicators

Note: Rigorous high school program category may overlap with other categories Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card, http://mdreportcard.org/HighSchoolCompletion.aspx?PV=38:12:03:AAAA:1:N:0:13:1:1:0:1:1:1:3.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Wide gaps in rigorous program completion between lowincome and higher income graduates
100%

Class of 2012
FARMS 74% 68% Non-FARMS

Percent of graduates

80%

60%

40%

27%
20%

11%

15% 6%

15% 7%

0%

University System of Career and technology Both University and Maryland course education program career/technology requirements requirements requirements
Note: Rigorous high school program category may overlap with other categories Source: 2012 Maryland Report Card, http://mdreportcard.org/HighSchoolCompletion.aspx?PV=38:12:03:AAAA:3:N:0:5:1:2:1:1:1:2:3.

Rigorous high school program indicators

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Rising college enrollment for all groups of BCPS graduates


Immediate College Enrollment of BCPS Graduates
Percent of Graduates Immediately Enrolling in College
100%

80%

59%
60%

66% 58% 46%

45%
40%

40%
20%

0%

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007 Latino

2008 White

2009

2010

African American

Source: Baltimore County Public Schools, Results of Student Tracker Study from the National Student Clearinghouse 2010 Data Summary.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Despite improvements, students of color less likely to enroll in college in the fall following high school graduation
100%

College Enrollment of BCPS Graduates (Class of 2010)

Percent immediately enrolling in college

80%

75% 66%

60%

58% 46%

40%

20%

0%

White

African-American

Latino

Asian

Source: Baltimore County Public Schools, Results of Student Tracker Study from the National Student Clearinghouse 2010 Data Summary.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

What Do We Know About How To Accelerate Success?


What do the high performers do?

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#1. They focus on what they can do, rather than what they cant.

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Some of our children live in pretty dire circumstances. But we cant dwell on that, because we cant change it. So when we come here, we have to dwell on that which is going to move our kids.

Barbara Adderly, Principal, M. Hall Stanton Elementary, Philadelphia


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When asked what can be done to solve the achievement problem, some adults just point out the schoolhouse window. But were not look out the window educators here: were look in the mirror folks. --Adelaide Flamer DCPS

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#2. They dont leave anything about teaching and learning to chance.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

An awful lot of our teacherseven brand new onesare left to figure out on their own what to teach and what constitutes good enough work.

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What does this do? Leaves teachers entirely on their own to figure out what to teach, what order to teach it in, HOW to teach itand to what level.

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A Work in Poor Schools Would Earn Cs in Affluent Schools


100 87

Seventh Grade Math

Percentile - CTBS4

56 35 34 41 22 21 11 0 A B Grades C D

Low-poverty schools

High-poverty schools

Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes, PES, DOE, 1997.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Students can do no better than the assignments they are given...

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Grade 10 Writing Assignment


A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this characters conflict with society is important.
2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Grade 10 Writing Assignment


Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther Kings most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Grade 7 Writing Assignment


Essay on Anne Frank Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel.

Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area.
Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Grade 7 Writing Assignment


My Best Friend: A chore I hate: A car I want: My heartthrob:
Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

High Performing Schools and Districts


Have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade, including the order in which they should learn it; Provide teachers with common curriculum, assignments; Have regular vehicle to assure common marking standards; Assess students regularly to measure progress; and, Dont leave student supports to chance.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

In other words, they strive for consistency in everything they do.


And they bring that consistency to school discipline, as well.

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#3. They set their goals high.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Elementary Version

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M. Hall Stanton Elementary: Percent of 5th Graders ADVANCED


45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 42 30 Reading Math

1 2001

1 2005

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High School Version

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Even when they start with high drop out rates, high impact high schools focus on preparing all kids for college and careers

Education Trust 2005 study, Gaining Traction, Gaining Ground.

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And the leaders dont think about closing the achievement gap only as bringing the bottom up.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

African American and Latino students are not making gains at the advanced level at the same rate as white students
NAEP Grade 8 Math
14% 12%

Percent at Advanced

10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 0% 2% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 6% 5%

10% 9% 7% 7%

African American Latino White

2% 1%

1996
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

2000

2003

2005

2007

2009

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

High performers dont just set stretch goals, they use data pervasively to chart progress, spot problems.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

#4. Principals are hugely important, ever present, but NOT the only leaders in the school

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Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High School

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How does this come about?


A lot is simply about communication.

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Phi Delta Kappan, December, 2011

Source:

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Source:

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We do have some problems still. And you all know what they are: our subgroup populations.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

We need to raise our test scores or the state/feds are going to come down on us.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Source:

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Source:

2011 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

There is a place of incredible possibilities within the neighborhoods of these socalled disadvantaged childrentheir free public schools. And inside those schools, there are educators (us) who have the power and the privilege to develop in our children perhaps the most powerful resource of all the mind. --Molly Bensinger-Lacy
Source:

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

#5. Good schools know how much teachers matter, and they act on that knowledge.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Students in Dallas Gain More in Math with Effective Teachers: One Year Growth From 3rd-4th Grade

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement , 1997.

DIFFERENCES IN TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS ACCOUNT FOR LARGE DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT LEARNING


The distribution of value-added scores for ELA teachers in LAUSD

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

ACCESS TO MULTIPLE EFFECTIVE TEACHERS CAN DRAMATICALLY AFFECT STUDENT LEARNING


CST math proficiency trends for second-graders at Below Basic or Far Below Basic in 2007 who subsequently had three consecutive high or low value-added teachers

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So, there are VERY BIG differences among our teachers.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

BUT
We pretend that there arent.

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The Widget Effect


When it comes to measuring instructional performance,
current policies and systems overlook significant differences between teachers. There is little or no differentiation of excellent teaching from good, good from fair, or fair from poor. This is the Widget Effect: a tendency to treat all teachers as roughly interchangeable, even when their teaching is quite variable. Consequently, teachers are not developed as professionals with individual strengths and capabilities, and poor performance is rarely identified or addressed.
The New Teacher Project, 2009

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Source:

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So, we paper over the differences among our teachers ANDwe continue to assign our weakest to the kids who need the strongest.

2013 2013 THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

Math Classes at High-Poverty and High- Minority Schools More Likely to be Taught by Out of Field* Teachers

Note: High Poverty school-75% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority school-75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school -10% or fewer of the students are non-White students. *Teachers with neither certification nor major. Data for secondary-level core academic classes (Math, Science, Social Studies, English) across USA. 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007.

Students at High-Minority Schools More Likely to Be Taught By Novice* Teachers

Note: High minority school-75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school -10% or fewer of the students are non-White students.
*Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience. 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007.

Tennessee: High poverty/high minority schools have fewer of the most effective teachers and more least effective teachers

Note: High Poverty/High minority means at least 75% qualify for FRPL and at least 75% are minority.
Source: Tennessee Department of Education 2007. Tennessees Most Effective Teachers: Are they assigned to the schools that need t hem 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST most? http://tennessee.gov/education/nclb/doc/TeacherEffectiveness2007_03.pdf

Los Angeles: LOW-INCOME STUDENTS LESS LIKELY TO HAVE HIGH VALUE-ADDED TEACHERS
ELA
A low-income student is more than twice as likely to have a low value-added teacher for ELA A student from a relatively more affluent background is 62% more likely to get a high value-added ELA teacher.

MATH
In math, a student from a relatively more affluent background is 39% more likely to get a high valueadded math teacher. A lowincome student is 66% more likely to have a low valueadded teacher.

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Low-Achieving Students are More Likely to be Assigned to Ineffective Teachers than Effective Teachers

Source: Sitha Babu and Robert Mendro, Teacher Accountability: HLM-Based Teacher Effectiveness Indices in the Investigation of 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in a State Assessment Program, AERA Annual Meeting, 2003.

High performing schools and districts


Work hard to attract and hold good teachers; Give teachers honest feedback and support to improve; Make sure that their best are assigned to the students who most need them; and, Chase out teachers who are not good enough for their kids.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

All in all, not a very long list.


Mostly just common sense.

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2012 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Download this presentation and register for the Education Trust national conference. Ordinary People, Extraordinary Results. October 24-25, Baltimore, MD. www.edtrust.org

Washington, D.C. 202/293-1217

Royal Oak, MI 734/619-8009

2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST

Oakland, CA 510/465-6444