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THE EVOLUTION OF LOGISTICS

SCOPE & INFLUENCE

GLOBAL LOGISTICS
SUPPLY CHAIN LOGISTICS
CORPORATE LOGISTICS
FACILITY LOGISTICS
WORKPLACE LOGISTICS

1950 s 1960 s 1970 s

1980 s 1990 s

Workplace Logistics

Aliran material pada sebuah stasiun kerja tunggal


Tujuan : meminimasi perpindahan seorang pekerja individual pada sebuah mesin atau sepanjang lini perakitan.

Facility Logistics

Aliran material antara stasiun kerja di

dalam fasiltas (yaitu, inter-stasiun kerja dan intra-fasilitas). Fasilitas dapat berupa pabrik, stasiun, gudang, atau pusat distribusi.
Tujuan : penanganan material (material handling).

Corporate Logistik

Aliran material dan informasi antar fasilitas dan proses-proses pada sebuah perusahaan (inter-stasiun kerja, interfasilitas, dan intra-perusahaan)
Tujuan : mencapai dan mempertahankan kebijakan pelayanan konsumen yang menguntungkan dan mengurangi biaya total logistik.

Supply Chain Logistics

Aliran material, informasi, dan uang antar perusahaan antar-stasiun kerja, antar fasilitas, antar perusahaan, dan antar chain) Logisitik adalah kejadian dalam supply chain.

Logistik Global

Aliran material, informasi, dan keuangan antar negara


Logistik global menghubungkan supliernya suplier kita dengan konsumen akhir di seluruh dunia.

Logistik Generasi Mendatang

Kolaborasi logistik : optimasi real-time serta

komunikasi antara semua rekanan pada seluruh mata rantai supply. Logistik virtual (fourth-party logistics) : seluruh aktivitas logistik dan manajemen akan di outsourced ke provider-provider third-party logistics.

Merupakan bagian dari proses Rantai Pasok yang direncanakan, dilaksanakan, dan dikendalikan dengan efisien, mengefektifkan aliran dan penyimpanan barang, pelayanan, dan informasi terkait dari titik-titik pengumpulan/asal (point of origin) ke titik-titik konsumsi/tujuan (point of consumption) untuk memenuhi kebutuhan konsumen.

Missi Logistik menurut Ballou (1999) :


Menyampaikan barang atau jasa yang tepat, pada tempat yang tepat, pada waktu yang tepat, dan pada kualitas yang diinginkan, sehingga memberikan kontribusi terbesar bagi perusahaan.

Tujuan Logistik menurut Ballou (1999) :

Menyampaikan barang jadi dan bermacammacam material dalam jumlah yang tepat, pada waktu yang dibutuhkan, dalam keadaan yang dapat dipakai, ke lokasi dimana ia dibutuhkan dan dengan total biaya terendah. Mencapai level sokongan manufacturingpemasaran yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya dengan total biaya yang serendah mungkin.

Sasaran Logistik menurut Ballou (1999) :

Business logistics

Physical supply

(Materials management / Inbound Logistics)


Sources of supply Plants/ operations

Physical distribution

(outbound logistics)
Customers Transportation Inventory maintenance Order processing Product scheduling Protective packaging Warehousing Materials handling Information maintenance

Transportation Inventory maintenance Order processing Acquisition/purchasing/procurement Protective packaging Warehousing Materials handling Information maintenance

Focus firms internal supply chain

Fragmentation 1960

Evolving integration 1980

Total integration 2000

Demand forecasting Purchasing Requirements planning Production planning Manufacturing inventory Warehousing Materials handling Industrial package Finished goods inventory Distribution planning Order processing Transportation
Distribution Management Materials Management Logistics supply chain

Customer service

Stage 1: baseline

Purchasing

Material Control

Production

Sales

Distribution

Stage 2: functional integration

Materials Management

Manufacturing Management

Distribution

Stage 3: internal integration (logistics)

Materials Management

Manufacturing Distribution Management

Stage 4: external integration(supply chain)

Suppliers

Internal supply Customers chain

What Is the Supply Chain?


Juga disebut sebagai jaringan logistik Suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, distribution centers and retail outlets facilities dan Raw materials , Work-in-process (WIP) inventory, Finished products, yang mengalir antara fasilitas
Semua fasilitas, fungsi, kegiatan, terkait dengan aliran dan

transformasi barang dan jasa dari bahan baku kepada pelanggan, serta arus informasi yang terkait Sebuah kelompok yang terintegrasi untuk memproses : "sumber (source)," "membuat (make)," dan mengirim (deliver)" produk

The Supply Chain


Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Distribution Centers Customers

Transportation Costs Material Costs

Transportation Costs

Manufacturing Costs

Transportation Costs Inventory Costs

VISA

Material Flow

Credit Flow

Supplier

Manufacturing

Retailer

Consumer

Supplier Schedules

Wholesaler Order Flow

Retailer Cash Flow

Supply Chain for Denim Jeans

Supply Chain for Denim Jeans (cont.)

Supply Chain Processes

Supply Chain for Service Providers


Lebih sulit dari manufacturing Fokusnya bukan pada aliran physical goods Fokusnya pada human resources & support services

The Supply Chain Another View

Plan

Source

Make

Deliver

Buy

Suppliers

Manufacturers

Warehouses & Distribution Centers

Customers

Material Costs

Transportation Transportation Costs Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs

What Is Supply Chain Management (SCM)?


Satu set pendekatan yang digunakan untuk efisiensi pengintegrasian : Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses Distribution centers Sehingga produk ini diproduksi dan didistribusikan In the right quantities To the right locations at the right time at the low cost Memenuhi service level yang ditentukan Keys to effective SCM : information communication cooperation trust

Pengarang
Christopher (1992)

Definisi M anajemen Suppl y Chain


Manajemen jejaring organisasi yang menghubungkan upstream dan downstream, dalam proses & aktivitas yang berbeda untuk memproduksi nilai suatu produk/jasa ke konsumen akhir Sekumpulan pendekatan yang digunakan untuk mengefisienkan integrasi pemasok-pabrikan-gudangdistributor-pengecer dalam memproduksi dan distribusi pada kuantitas yang tepat, lokasi yang tepat, dan waktu yang tepat, untuk meminimasi seluruh ongkos dan memenuhi kebutuhan tingkat pelayanan Perancangan, pemeliharaan dan operasi proses supply chain untuk memuaskan pengguna akhir

Oliver and Aliran barang-barang mulai dari pemasok melalui Webber (1982) pabrikan dan saluran distribusi ke pemakai akhir.

David SimchiLevi et al. (2000)

Ayers (2001)

History of Supply Chain Management


1960s - Inventory Management Focus, Cost Control 1970s - MRP & BOM - Operations Planning 1980s - MRPII, JIT - Materials Management, Logistics 1990s - SCM - ERP - Integrated Purchasing, Financials, Manufacturing, Order Entry 2000s - Optimized Value Network with Real-Time Decision Support; Synchronized & Collaborative Extended Network

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Business logistics

Physical supply

(Materials management / Inbound Logistics)


Sources of supply Plants/ operations

Physical distribution

(outbound logistics)
Customers Transportation Inventory maintenance Order processing Product scheduling Protective packaging Warehousing Materials handling Information maintenance

Transportation Inventory maintenance Order processing Acquisition/purchasing/procurement Protective packaging Warehousing Materials handling Information maintenance

Focus firms internal supply chain

Stage 1: baseline

Purchasing

Material Control

Production

Sales

Distribution

Stage 2: functional integration

Materials Management

Manufacturing Management

Distribution

Stage 3: internal integration (logistics)

Materials Management

Manufacturing Distribution Management

Stage 4: external integration(supply chain)

Suppliers

Internal supply Customers chain

Fragmentation 1960

Evolving integration 1980

Total integration 2000

Demand forecasting Purchasing Requirements planning Production planning Manufacturing inventory Warehousing Materials handling Industrial package Finished goods inventory Distribution planning Order processing Transportation
Distribution Management Materials Management Logistics supply chain

Customer service

SCM System Among Others

Information Technology for Supply Chain Management

Software Systems
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Supply Chain Management Systems (SCM) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Internet-based Software

Network Infrastructure
Wide Area Network Internet (for E-commerce: B2B, B2C)
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Why Is SCM Difficult?


Plan Source Make Deliver Buy

Ketidakpastian yang melekat di setiap supply Travel times Breakdowns of machines and vehicles Cuaca, bencana alam, perang Local politics, labor conditions, border issues Kompleksitas masalah dalam mengoptimalkan supply chain : Minimize internal costs Minimize uncertainty
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The Importance of Supply Chain Management


Berurusan dengan lingkungan yang tidak menentu matching supply and demand Singkatnya siklus hidup produk berteknologi tinggi - Kurang kesempatan untuk mengumpulkan data historis pada permintaan pelanggan - Luasnya pilihan produk dalam bersaing membuatnya sulit untuk memprediksi permintaan Perkembangan teknologi seperti Internet memungkinkan kolaborasi lebih besar antara mitra dagang supply chain Ketersediaan teknologi SCM di pasar Perusahaan dapat mengakses berbagai tipe produk (e.g., SAP, Baan, Oracle, JD Edwards) yang mengintegrasi proses internal
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Product Life Cycle, Sales, Cost, and Profit


Sales, Cost & Profit .
Cost of Development & Manufacture

Sales Revenue

Profit

Loss

Cash flow
Time

Introduction Growth Maturity

Decline

Supply Chain Uncertainty


One goal in SCM:
respond to uncertainty in customer demand without creating costly excess inventory

Factors that contribute to uncertainty


inaccurate demand forecasting long variable lead times late deliveries incomplete shipments product changes batch ordering price fluctuations and discounts inflated orders

Negative effects of uncertainty


lateness incomplete orders

Inventory
insurance against supply chain uncertainty

Supply Chain Management and Uncertainty


Inventory dan tingkat back-order berfluktuasi di seluruh supply chain bahkan ketika permintaan konsumen tidak bervariasi Variabilitas memburuk (meningkat) Forecasting doesnt help!
Multi-tier Suppliers Manufacturer Wholesale Distributors Retailers Consumers

Sales

Sales

Time

Sales

Time

Time

Sales Time

Bullwhip Effect
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Bullwhip Effect
Pembesaran variabilitas dalam pesanan di supply-chain. Fluktuasi pesanan meningkat ke arah hulu supply chain dari retailers (pengecer) ke grosir ke produsen dan ke pemasok

Retailers Orders

Wholesalers Orders

Manufacturers Orders

Time

Time

Time

Banyak pengecer dengan masingmasing sedikit variabilitas pesanan mereka .

dapat menyebabkan variabilitas yang lebih besar untuk beberapa pedagang besar (wholesalers), dan

dapat menyebabkan variabilitas yang lebih besar lagi bagi produsen tunggal.

Bullwhip Effect

Todays Marketplace Requires:


Personalized : konten dan pelayanan bagi pelanggan mereka
Collaborative : perencanaan dengan design partners, distributors, and suppliers Real-time : commitments for design, production, inventory, and transportation capacity Flexible : pilihan logistik untuk memastikan pemenuhan tepat waktu Order tracking & pelaporan melalaui multiple

vendors and carriers


Shared visibility for trading partners
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Supply Chain Management Key Issues


Forecasts are never right
Sangat tidak mungkin bahwa permintaan aktual akan sama dengan peramalan Ramalan selama satu tahun dari sekarang tidak akan pernah seakurat ramalan selama 3 bulan dari sekarang

The longer the forecast horizon, the worse the forecast

Aggregate forecasts are more accurate

Namun demikian, metode peramalan adalah alat manajemen yang penting untuk mengurangi ketidakpastian permintaan

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Supply Chain Management Key Issues


Mengatasi fungsi-fungsi dalam organisasi yang tujuantujuannya saling bertentangan
Purchasing Manufacturing Distribution Customer Service/ Sales
High inventories

Low purchase price Multiple vendors

Few changeovers Stable schedules Long run lengths

Low inventories

High service levels Regional stocks

Low transportation

SOURCE

MAKE

DELIVER

SELL

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Supply Chain Management Key Issues


ISSUE Network Planning CONSIDERATIONS
Warehouse locations and capacities Plant locations and production levels Transportation flows between facilities to minimize cost and time How should inventory be managed? Why does inventory fluctuate and what strategies minimize this? Impact of volume discount and revenue sharing Pricing strategies to reduce order-shipment variability

Inventory Control Supply Contracts

Distribution Strategies

Selection of distribution strategies (e.g., direct ship vs. cross-docking) How many cross-dock points are needed? Cost/Benefits of different strategies
How can integration with partners be achieved? What level of integration is best? What information and processes can be shared? What partnerships should be implemented and in which situations?

Integration and Strategic Partnering

Outsourcing & Procurement Strategies Product Design

What are our core supply chain capabilities and which are not? Does our product design mandate different outsourcing approaches? Risk management How are inventory holding and transportation costs affected by product design? How does product design enable mass customization?

Supply Chain Management Operations Strategies


STRATEGY Make to Stock WHEN TO CHOOSE
standardized products, relatively predictable demand customized products, many variations many variations on finished product; infrequent demand

BENEFITS
Low manufacturing costs; meet customer demands quickly Customization; reduced inventory; improved service levels Low inventory levels; wide range of product offerings; simplified planning Enables response to specific customer requirements

Make to Order Configure to Order

Engineer to Order

complex products, unique customer specifications

Source: Simchi-Levi

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Supply Chain Management Benefits


Tahun 2009, PRTM Integrated Supply Chain Benchmarking Survey of 331 firms found significant benefits to integrating the supply chain Delivery Performance Inventory Reduction Fulfillment Cycle Time Forecast Accuracy Overall Productivity Lower Supply-Chain Costs Fill Rates Improved Capacity Realization
Source: Cohen & Roussel

16%-28% Improvement 25%-60% Improvement 30%-50% Improvement 25%-80% Improvement 10%-16% Improvement 25%-50% Improvement 20%-30% Improvement 10%-20% Improvement
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Supply Chain Imperatives for Success


Melihat supply chain sebagai aset strategis dan pembeda (diferensiasi)
Wal-Marts partnership with Proctor & Gamble to automatically replenish inventory Dells innovative direct-to-consumer sales and build-to-order manufacturing

Ciptakan konfigurasi supply chain yang unik yang sesuai dengan tujuan strategis perusahaan
Operations strategy Outsourcing strategy Channel strategy Customer service strategy Asset network Forecasting Collaboration Integration

Supply chain configuration components

Reduksi uncertainty (ketidakpastian), dengan :

Value of Information and SCM


Information In The Supply Chain
Plan
Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Distribution Centers Retailer

Source

Make

Deliver

Sell

Order Lead Time Delivery Lead Time

Production Lead Time

Setiap fasilitas yang makin jauh dari permintaan pelanggan aktual harus membuat forecasts of demand Kurangnya data aktual pembelian pelanggan, setiap fasilitas hanya berdasarkan ramalan pada order downstream, yang lebih bervariasi dari pada permintaan aktual Untuk mengakomodasi variabilitas, tingkat persediaan overstocked sehingga meningkatkan biaya persediaan.

Diperkirakan supply chain perusahaan farmasi menyiapkan persediaan untuk 100 hari guna mengakomodasi ketidakpastian

Taming (menjinakkan) the Bullwhip

Methods for Improving Forecasts


Judgment Methods Market Research Analysis

Panels of Experts Internal experts External experts Domain experts Delphi technique Accurate Forecasts Causal Analysis

Market testing Market surveys Focus groups

Time-Series Methods

Moving average Exponential smoothing Trend analysis Seasonality analysis

Relies on data other than that being predicted Economic data, commodity data, etc. 45