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ANOINTING

OF THE
SICK
JOHN BERNARDO
VENICE BUAGÑIN
ADRIAN ESPIRITU
WALTER FERNANDEZ
DEFINITION
Also known as
“extreme unction”

 the Church commends

 the faithful who are dangerously ill

 to the suffering and glorified Lord

 in order that he relieve and save

them
 conferred by anointing them with

oil and pronouncing the


words prescribed in the liturgical
books. (Canon 998)


Biblical text
The chief Biblical text concerning the

rite is James 5: 14-15:


 "Is any among you sick? Let him call for
the elders of the church, and let them pray
over him, anointing him with oil in the
name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith
will save the sick man, and the Lord will
raise him up; and if he has committed sins,
he will be forgiven." (RSV)
ITS FOUNDATIONS IN THE
ECONOMY OF SALVATION
Foundations in the economy of salvation

Illness in human life (CCC 1500 – 1501)


The sick person before God (CCC

1502)
Christ the physician (CCC 1503 -1505)

"Heal the sick . . ." (CCC 1506 – 1510)

A sacrament of the sick (CCC 1511 –

1513)
Illness in human life (CCC 1500 – 1501)

Man experiences:

 Powerlessness
 Limitations
 Finitude
It can lead to:

 Anguish
 Self-absorption
 Maturity
 A search for God and
The sick person before God (CCC 1502)

God as the Master of life


and death
Illness as a way to

conversion
God initiates the healing

as a sign of
forgiveness
Christ the physician (CCC 1503 -1505)

Sign that:

 “God has visited his people”


 Kingdom of God is close at hand
Jesus

 “touches” us in order to heal us


 Makes the sick’s miseries as his own
 Took away the “sin of the world” by his
passion and death on the cross
(redemptive meaning of suffering)

"Heal the sick . . ." (CCC 1506 – 1510)

"So they went out and


preached that men


should repent. And they
cast out many demons,
and anointed with oil
many that were sick and
healed them.” (115 Mk 6:12-13)
A sacrament of the sick (CCC 1511 – 1513)

Anointing of the sick:


 Instituted by Christ as a true and proper


sacrament of the New Testament
 Alluded by Mark
 Recommended and promulgated by James,
the apostle and brother of the Lord
 The Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem
infirmorum (following upon the Second
Vatican Council) established how it shall be
observed
WHO RECEIVES AND WHO
ADMINISTERS THIS
SACRAMENT?
Who Receives the Sacrament?
A baptized Catholic
Reached the age of reason

Begun to be in danger from illness

or the infirmities of age, or have


become sick again or underwent a
further crisis
 Note: the danger need only have

begun to exist and the person


does not have to be "in
extremis" (in imminent danger of
dying)
Who Receives the Sacrament?

Baptized Catholic

 Exception:

 Unless the provisions of canon 844 and the

norms of the local bishop and the bishops


conference are met
 For Orthodox Christians and other Churches

with valid sacraments, canon 844, §3 provides


that they:
 ask for it on their own

 be properly disposed
Who Receives the Sacrament?

Other Christians

 Canon 844, 4 states that the following


conditions must be met:
 · danger of death or other grave necessity

 · inability to approach a minister of their own

community
 · ask for it on their own

 · manifest Catholic faith in the sacrament

 · be properly disposed


Who Receives the Sacrament?
Reached the age of reason

 Exceptions:
 a child (but still may show enough use of the faculty to
understand what is taking place and benefit from the
sacrament)
 a mentally challenged individual
 Small children - the priest should use the prayers, readings
and blessings for sick children as presented in Chapter Two
of Pastoral Care of the Sick: Rites of Anointing and Viaticum
 Those who once had the use of reason, but have
subsequently lost their mental faculties due to senility,
unconsciousness, mental illness or some other reason
Who Receives the Sacrament?
Danger from illness or infirmities of old age

 Exclusions:
 those who are simply ill or old, without danger from
sickness or infirmity
 the physically or mentally handicapped without any
accompanying danger from sickness or infirmity of age
 those who are in danger of death but who are not
seriously ill (e.g., a soldier going into battle), or for
healthy people who are about to die from an extrinsic
source (e.g., capital punishment)
 Remedy: the Sacrament of Reconciliation and Holy Eucharist as
Viaticum
Who Receives the Sacrament?
Must be Alive

 If there is doubt:

 The pastoral practice is to favor the


person and anoint them, provided it is
not certain that they are dead
Who Receives the Sacrament?

Unrepentant

 Such a person who showed even an implicit


sign of repentance (e.g. "please call the
priest"), could be anointed
 in the state of grave sin, but who had
manifested an habitual desire to die a
Catholic, could be anointed (even if he
became unconscious in the very act of
sinning)
WHO ADMINISTERS THIS SACRAMENT?

only a priest whom the care


of souls has been committed


 Exceptions:
 for a reasonable cause any other

priest can administer this


sacrament with at least the
presumed consent of the
aforementioned priest
 from non-Catholic
ministers in whose Churches these
sacraments are valid (Canon
844§2 )
HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT
CELEBRATED?
HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

Within the Eucharist, the


memorial of the Lord’s
Passover
it can be preceded by

the Sacrament of
Penance and followed by
the Eucharist
HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

Principal elements (order):


 The priests of the Church


(in silence)
 Laying hands on the sick
 Praying over the sick in the
faith of the Church
 Anointing them with oil
blessed by the Bishop (if
possible)
HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

Who can bless the oil (olea


infirmorum)?:
 Bishop (when: each Lent)

 Those equivalent to a

diocesan bishop by law


 Any presbyter (in case of

necessity and only in the


actual celebration of the
sacrament)
HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

Words prescribed:

 “Through this holy anointing may the

Lord in his love and mercy help you


with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May
the Lord who frees you from sin save
you and raise you up.” (CCC 1513)
HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

Exceptions:

 A single anointing on the forehead or even


on some part of the body while the entire
formula is said (Canon 1000)
 Due to grave reason, a minister may not use
his hands (Canon 1000)


HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

COMMUNAL CELEBRATION
 May be performed according to the

prescripts of the diocesan bishop


Effects of the
Celebration of this
Sacrament
Effects of the Celebration of this
A particular gift of the
Holy Spirit
Union with the passion of

Christ
An ecclesial grace

A preparation for the final

journey
Effects of the Celebration of this
A particular gift of the Holy Spirit

 The strengthening, peace and courage to


endure in the Christian manner the sufferings
of illness or old age
 renews trust and faith in God and strengthens
against the temptations of the evil one
 inspiring the sick person with such confidence
in the Divine mercy
 brings "the restoration of health, if it is
conducive to the salvation of his soul".

Effects of the Celebration of this
Union with the passion of Christ
 The uniting of the sick person to the passion
of Christ, for his own good and that of the
whole Church
 he is consecrated to bear fruit by
configuration to the Savior's redemptive
Passion
Effects of the Celebration of this
Sacrament
 The effects of sin as mentioned by the
Council of Trent are variously understood as
one, or more, or all of the following:
 1. Spiritual debility and depression caused by the
consciousness of having sinned
 2. The influence of evil habits induced by sin
 3. Temporal penalties remaining after the guilt of
sin has been forgiven
 4. Venial, or even mortal, sins themselves.

Effects of the Celebration of this
 a grave obligation imposed by Divine law of
confessing all mortal sins committed after
baptism and obtaining absolution from them
 one guilty of mortal sin is bound to receive the
Sacrament of Penance before receiving extreme
unction
 in case penance cannot be received, one must
prepare himself for anointing by an act of perfect
contrition
 God sometimes allows us to undergo sickness
as a form of discipline and training in
righteousness
Effects of the Celebration of this
An ecclesial grace

 "by freely uniting themselves to the passion


and death of Christ”
 "contribute to the good of the People of
God“
 "assisted by their pastor and the whole
ecclesial community” = liturgical and
communal celebration


Effects of the Celebration of this
A preparation for the final journey

 given to those at the point of departing this life


= called sacramentum exeuntium (the
sacrament of those departing)
 completes our conformity to the death and
Resurrection of Christ
 completes the holy anointing that marks the
whole Christian life
 Baptism - sealed the new life in us
 Confirmation - strengthened us for the combat of
this life
Effects of the Celebration of this
primary purpose

 to comfort and to strengthen the soul of the


sick person
 to prepare the soul for death, if death is to
eventuate
secondary and conditional purpose

 the recovery of bodily health by the sick or


injured person

Viaticum
Viaticum

What is viaticum?

 food for the journey


 the passage through death to eternal life
 celebrates the Paschal Mystery, the mystery
of life, death and new life, both for the dying
Christian and for the Christian community
 the proper sacrament for a dying
Christian
Viaticum
 the participation of the community will most
likely be limited to a few people
 The Sacrament of Reconciliation = offered at
some time prior to the reception of Viaticum


Viaticum

Features of Viaticum:

 the Apostolic Blessing - given by the priest


either at the conclusion of the Sacrament of
Reconciliation or at the conclusion of the
penitential rite
 the renewal of baptismal promises
 The Sign of Peace - provides an opportunity
for those present to embrace the dying
person
Viaticum

Who can administer Viaticum?


 the priest
 a deacon or a lay pastoral care minister (in
the absence of the priest)
 Deacon - follows the rite prescribed in the

ritual
 a layperson - follows the form of the rite

from the Ritual for Laypersons


Viaticum
Rites and Ceremonies

 The priest, having placed the pyx in the burse,


which should hang on his breast by a cord
round his neck
 goes to the sick person's house
 reciting on the way the "Miserere" and other
psalms and canticles he may know by heart
 At the door of the sick-room he says: "Pax
huic domui“
 if there be no one to answer, he replies himself:
"Et omnibus habitantibus in ea"
Viaticum
Rites and Ceremonies

 enters the room, puts on his stole, takes out


the pyx, places it on the table, genuflects,
and rises
 takes the holy water and sprinkles first the
sick person in the form of a cross
(sometimes even around the room)
 Ask if the candidate had confession
 The priest then goes to the table, genuflects,
and uncovers the pyx
Viaticum
Rites and Ceremonies

 the communion-cloth or napkin is adjusted


under the chin of the sick person who recites
the "Confiteor“
 if not, it is said in his name by one of the bystanders,
or, when there is no one able to do this, by the priest
himself

Viaticum

Rites and Ceremonies


 After the "Confiteor" the priest genuflects,


rises, and turns towards the sick person
 taking care, however, not to turn his back to the
Blessed Sacrament
 In this position he says "Misereatur" and
"Indulgentiam" using the words: tui, tuis, tuorum, and
tibi
Viaticum
Rites and Ceremonies

 Gives the Body of Christ


 After the Communion the priest purifies the
pyx and his fingers in a small glass of water,
and the water is given by the priest, or one of
the attendants, to the sick person to drink

Viaticum
 Rites and Ceremonies
*The Priest may omit some of the prayers
* If unable to swallow the Host before death - it
should not be given
* If it be given and death ensue before he can
swallow it - it should be removed from his
tongue and placed either in a corporal or in
some vessel and kept in some secure place
and in due time put into the sacrarium
EXORCISM
Exorcism
 from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek
exorkizein - to abjure
 practice of evicting demons or other
evil spiritual entities from a person or
place which they are believed to have
possessed
SIGNS OF POSSESSION
 Victim speaks or understands unknown
languages without ever studying the
language being spoken or heard
 Victim clearly knows things that are distant or
hidden
 Victim can predict future events (sometimes
through dreams)
 Victim has an intense hatred for holy things
 Victim shows a physical strength far above
his age or normal condition
WHO CAN PERFORM AN EXORCISM?

 Canon 1172
(1) one who has obtained special
express permission from the local
ordinary
(2) The local ordinary is to give this
permission only to a presbyter who has
piety, knowledge, prudence, and
integrity of life.
PROCEDURE OF THE EXORCIST

 wear an alb and a purple stole right


before the part of the prayer that begins
"Ecce crucem domine, fúgite partes
advérsae
 having made the sign of the cross over
the victim, place the ends of the stole
around this person's neck
 place his right hand on the head of his
victim
PROCEDURE OF THE EXORCIST

 A Bible containing both the Old and


New Testaments should be on hand
when questioning and commanding the
demons to respond
*The Rite of Exorcism uses passages
from Jn. 1:1-14; Mk. 16:15-18; Lk. 1:17-
20; Lk. 11:14-22