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3G and 4G Wireless Advances and Challenges

Suresh R. Borkar Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill Instt. of Tech. sureshbo@hotmail.com Apr 14, 2006
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3G and 4G Wireless Advances and Challenges



Where are we? 3G Wireless Summary Where do we Want to go?

Evolution to Seamless Networking


4G Wireless Challenges

The one who stays still is left behind


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Where are We?


Classic Wireline MaBell Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
US Universal coverage achieved early 1980s Wireless First Generation Analog Systems Speech AMPS, TACS Second Generation Digital Systems Enhanced Capacity CDMA, D-AMPS, TDMA, GSM, DECT, PDC 2.5 Generation Systems Low Speed Data GPRS, EDGE Third Generation Systems INTERNET on Wireless WiFi/HyperLAN <-> WiMAX/HyperWAN <-> CDMA2000/WCDMA Evolution to All IP Network including VoIP

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Representative Wireless Standards


GSM/TDMA
Time Division Multiplexing based access

CDMA
Code Division Multiplexing based access

OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Many toys to play with


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TDMA/FDMA

Frequency Domain

Frequency 1 Frequency 2 . . . Frequency n Frequency 1 Frequency 2 . . . Frequency n

slot 1 Circuit Circuit

slot 2 Circuit Circuit

...

Slot n Circuit Circuit Downlink Path

Circuit Circuit Circuit

Circuit Circuit Circuit

Circuit Circuit Circuit Uplink Path

Circuit

Circuit

Circuit

Give the same air to all


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CDMA

t Freq: Chips

user 1 user 2 usern Separated by PN codes t

III

Message

Resulting Signal

Channelization code: Separate xmissions from a single source from each other Scrambling code: separate different sources from each other Spreading Code = Channelization code x Scrambling code

All persons are created equal


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Multipath Arrival of Signals

Transmitted symbol received signal at each time delay Modified with the channel estimate combined symbol

finger #1 finger #2 finger #3

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CDMA Rake Receiver


Input signal (from RF) correlator I phase rotator Q SUM Q code generator channel estimator Finger 1 Finger 2 Finger 3 Timing (Finger allocation) Combiner Q delay equalizer SUM I I

Matched filter

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Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)


Successor to Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence CDMA Capability to cancel multipath distortion in a spectrally efficient
manner without requiring multiple local oscillators (802.11a and 802.16)

Based on use of IFFT and FFT Frequency orthogonality as compared to code orthogonality in
CDMA using Walsh Code

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3G Services

2MHz

video conferencing

telemedicine Video on demand electronic newspaper Mobile TV

Internet Bandwidth audio conferencing

radio paging

messaging

Mobile radio

Fax voice 1KHz bi-directional unidirectional Broadcast/ multicast

Who is first? the customer; who is second? - No one


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Key Mobility Services


Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS)
Text, sounds, images, and video Transition from Short Message Service (SMS)

Open Internet standards for messaging

Web Applications
Information portals Wireless Markup Language (WML) with signals using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

Location Communications Services


Location Awareness Based

Personalization of information presentation format


Service capability negotiations (MExE environment)

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Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)

CAMEL = IN + Service portability (incl mobility and roaming) Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Mobile user <-> ISP <-> corporate server

Mobility, Security, Capacity and quality

Prepaid, Usage Limitations, Advanced Routing Services Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
Subscriber profile, charging information, Service information, numbering information Integration of array of services, content conversion to heterogeneous services, network user profile, location aware services

Take the claims with a grain of salt


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GSM Network
SCP
PSTN/ISDN

SSP

gsm SCF
HLR AuC

STP
ISUP C

IN

Gw-MSC

C, D

Billing Center SMS-GW

VLR

MSC
GSM 04.08 A

BSS

UE

Circuit domain
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GSM & GPRS


SCP
PSTN/ISDN

SSP

gsm SCF
HLR AuC

IP Services
Gi Gc

PDN

STP
ISUP C

IN

Gw-MSC

GGSN Billing Center SMS-GW CGw


Ga Gr Ga Gn Data, voice, video call

C, D VLR GSM 04.08+

MSC
A

SGSN
Gb GSM 04.08+

BSS

UE

Circuit domain
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Packet domain

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WCDMA/UMTS
gsm SSP SCF STP IN, CAMEL
C C+, D+ HLR+ AuC

SCP

PSTN/ISDN ISUP

IP Services

PDN Gi+

Gc+

Gw-MSC

GGSN Billing Center SMS-GW CGw


Gr+ Ga+ Ga+ Gn+ Data, voice, video call

VLR

3G-MSC
GSM 04.08++ Iu-cs

3G-SGSN
Iu-ps GSM 04.08++

UTRAN

UE

Circuit domain
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Packet domain

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GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services

High (Car / Train)

GSM HSCSD GPRS


Text Messaging Voice

Mobility

EDGE
CS Data Fax

UMTS

Low (stationary) 9.6 14.4 76.0 GPRS HSCSD 384.0 EDGE UMTS 2 Mb/s

Bit Rate, Kbps

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3G Evolution
2.5G
GSM HSCSD 15.2 kbps TDMA CDPD 43.2 kbps PDA/PDC-P 14.4 kbps GPRS 170 kbps EDGE 473 kbps EDGE Ph2 GRAN 473 kbps

3.5G

TD-SCDMA 284 kbps WCDMA FDD 2 Mbps CDMA2000 1x 307 kps HyperLAN2 54 Mbps IEEE 802.11 a/h 54 Mbps

TD-SCDMA Ph 2 2 Mbps
WCDMA TDD 2 Mbps

WCDMA HSDPA 10 Mbps

1XEV-DO (HDR) 2.4 Mbps 1XEV-DV (HDR) 5.4 Mbps Harmonized HyperLAN2 And IEEE 802.11a

cdmaOne 76.8 kbps WLAN IEEE 802.11b 11 Mbps

WiMAX/HyperMAN also in the mix


Ref: Honkasalo et al, WCDMA and WLAN for 3G and Beyond, IEEE Wireless Communication, Apr 2002 SRB 041406 ver1 17

Some Representative Current Wireless Options


3G Cellular (WCDMA)
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in frequency (symmetric) Time Division Duplex (TDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in time allows asymmetric traffic (adjust time slots in uplink and downlink) 3G Cellular (CDMA2000) Wi Fi 802.11a and 802.11b; HyperLAN2 2.4 GHz band WiMAX 802.16d (fixed); 802.16e (portable) 5.8 GHz band; 10 20 Mbps symmetrical BW Blue Tooth RF based LAN technology; 20-30 feet coverage 2.4 GHz band

Darwins Theory of Evolution and Survival of the fittest


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3G WCDMA

Release 99 Release 4 Release 5

Domains, Protocols, and Channels


Radio Resource Management Network Dimensioning and Optimization Quality of Service (QoS0 and Location Services

The favored twin sister of CDMA2000


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Release 99

Radio Bearer Negotiations Traffic Classes Complex Scrambling Speech Codec (eight) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) Battery Life Transmission spatial/antenna diversity Compressed Mode Measurements in multiple frequency Use of transmission time reduction techniques # PDP Contexts per IP Address QPSK; coherent detection; Rake receiver Short and Long Spreading Codes Multicall several simultaneous CS calls with dedicated bearers of independent traffic and performance characteristics Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3
A lot to gobble
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Release 4
Bearer Independent Core Network Tandem Free Operation (TFO), Transcoder Free Operation
(TrFO), and Out of Band Transcoder Control (OoBTC)

Low Chip Rate TDD Operation Network Assisted Cell Change FDD Repeater NodeB Synchronization for TDD

IPv6 packet switched network supporting both real time and non-real time traffic
Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) replacing SS7

Home Subscriber Server (HSS) MSC/VLR -> MSC server (mobility management) and MGW
(Connection management subtasks)

Multimedia Message Service (MMS) environment


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Release 5

IP Transport in UTRAN High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (upto 10 Mbps) Intra Domain Connection to Multiple CN Nodes (Iuflex)

IP Multimedia CN Subsystem (IMS)


Guaranteed End to End (E2E) QoS in the PS domain Global Text Telephony Support for Real Time Services in packet domain

CAMEL Phase 4

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HSDPA
Peak Data rate > 10 Mbps Same spectrum by both voice and data
Up to 12 spreading codes for High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH)

Fast link Adaptation


Both code and time division for channel sharing

Transmission Time interval 2 ms Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ)


Automatic optimizations to Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)

QPSK and 16 QAM modulation at 3.84 Mhz symbol; spreading


factor fixed to 16

Incremental Redundancy or chase combining (CH) New DPCCH2 in uplink primarily for HARQ channel state info

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WCDMA Domains
Home Network Domain [Zu] Cu Uu Iu [Yu]

Serving Network Domain USIM Domain Mobile Equipment Domain User Equipment Domain Access Network Domain Core Network Domain Infrastructure Domain

Transit Network Domain

Standardization of architecture (domains) and standardization of protocols (strata)


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WCDMA Protocol Layers


Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Data Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

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WCDMA L1, L2, and RRC Sublayer


C-plane signalling GC Nt DC U-plane information

Duplication avoidance GC Nt DC

L3
control RRC PDCP

UuS boundary

L3/RRC
PDCP

con con trol trol

concon trol trol

L2/PDCP
BMC

L2/BMC

RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical Channels MAC

L2/MAC
Transport Channels

PHY

L1
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WCDMA Channels
Logical Channels Control BCCH Traffic DTCH

PCCH

DCCH

CCCH

SHCCH

CTCH

Mac

-b

-c/sh

-d

Transport Channels

Common BCH PCH

FACH

RACH

UL CPCH DSCH

Dedicated DCH

Physical Channels

Mapped to Transport Channels PCCPH SCCPCH

PRACH

PCPCH

PDSCH

DPDCH

DPCCH

Dedicated SCH CPICH AICH PICH CSICH


CD/CA-ICH

Transport Channels: how information transferred over the radio interface Logical Channels: Type of information transferred over the radio interface

Channels made by soft hats


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Mapping Between Channels


Uplink CCCH DCCH DTCH PCCH BCCH Downlink CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH

Logical Channels

RACH

CPCH

DCH

Transport Channels

PCH

BCH

FACH

DSCH

DCH

PRACH

PCPCH

DPDCH DPCCH

Mapped Physical Channels

PCCPCH

SCCPCH

PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH

Dedicated Physical Channels

SCH CPICH AICH PICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH

N to M
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WCDMA Channel Usage Examples

Uplink/ Downlink Code Usage

Dedicated channels DCH Both According to maxm bit rate Yes Yes Medium or large data amounts

Common channels FCH RACH Downlink Uplink

Fast Power control Soft handover Suited for

Suited for bursty data

No

Shared channels CPCH DSCH USCH Uplink Downlink Uplink, only in TDD Fixed Fixed Fixed Codes Codes codes per codes per codes per shared shared cell cell cell btw users btw users No No Yes Yes No No No No No No Small Small Small or Medium Medium data data medium or large or large amounts amounts data data data amounts amounts amounts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Flexibility comes with responsibility


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Radio Resource Management



Power Control Handover Access Control

Load and Congestion Control


Packet Scheduling

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WCDMA Power Control (near = far)


Keep received power levels P1 and P2 equal

Y Y

Power control commands to the UEs

UE1

NodeB UE2
Uplink and downlink (1500 Hz) Open Loop Power Control Closed Loop Power Control Outer Loop Power Control Equal Opportunity Administration (EOA)
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WCDMA Handovers
sector 1
The same signal is sent from both sectors to UE

Softer
Y RNC Y

sector 2

Soft

Y Y

RNC
macro diversity combining in uplink

NodeB1 Y Y

The same signal is sent from both NodeB's to UE, except for the power control commands

NodeB2

Hard and Inter-frequency handovers Intersystem cell-reselection Equivalent PLMN mode (autonomous cell re-selection (packet) idle mode)
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Handover Algorithm

Pilot Ec/IO of cell 1

Reporting_range + Hysteresis_event 1B Reporting_range - Hysteresis_event 1A Hysteresis_event 1C

Pilot Ec/IO of cell 2

Pilot Ec/IO of cell 3


Connected to cell 1 Event 1A - add cell2 Event 1C = replace cell1 with cell3 Event 1B = remove cell3

A relay race with multiple batons


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Network Dimensioning and Optimization


Dimensioning Criteria
Coverage, Capacity, Quality of Service

Dimensioning
Link budget, capacity (hard and soft) and load factor
Estimation of average interference power Coverage end Outage probabilities

Optimization
Performance Requirements
Antenna adjustments, neighbor lists, scrambling codes

Dont force a round peg in a square hole


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WCDMA Quality of Service (Qos)


Dynamic Negotiations of properties / Services of radio bearer
Thruput, transfer delay, data error rate Authentications
Traffic class Fundamental characteristics Conversational class Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay) voice, videotelephony video games Streaming class Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Interactive class Request response pattern Preserve data integrity Background Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time Preserve data integrity

Examples of the application

Streaming multimedia

Web browsing, network games

Background download of emails

One way communications is no communications


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Location Services (LCS)


UTRAN Node B LMU type B UE Um
BTS LMU LMU <- alternative -> type B

Uu

Iub SRNC
SMLC

HLR Iu Lh MSC Lg Le Gateway MLC Lc A/ (Gb)/ (Iu) External LCS client

Abis

BSC Ls
<- alternative -> Lb
(R98 and 99)

type A GERAN

SMLC Lp SMLC gsmSCF

Cell ID based Observed Time Difference Arrival Idle Period Downlink (OTDOA-IPDL) Network Assisted GPS You can run but you cannot hide
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Why Move Towards 4G?


Limitation to meet expectations of applications like multimedia,
full motion video, wireless teleconferencing Wider Bandwidth

Difficult to move and interoperate due to different standards


hampering global mobility and service portability

Primarily Cellular (WAN) with distinct LANs; need a new


integrated network

Limitations in applying recent advances in spectrally more


efficient modulation schemes

Need all all digital network to fully utilize IP and converged


video and data

Incessant human desire to reach the sky


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Where Do We Want to Go?


Seamless Roaming Integrated standard Networks Mobile Intelligent Internet
Onwards to (Ultra) Wideband Wireless IP Networks

We are no longer in Kansas, Toto


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Upcoming
3.5 G
Evolved radio Interface IP based core network

4G
New Air Interface Very high bit rate services Convergence of Wireline, Wireless, and IP worlds

And Now for Something Completely Different


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3G All-IP Reference Architecture


Applications & Services Legacy mobile signaling Network R-SGW Mh CAP HSS HLR Cx Gr SGSN Gn Iu TE MT UTRAN MGW Iu Gp Gn SGSN GGSN Other PLMN 40 SRB 041406 ver1 Mc MSC Server Nc Nb Gc Gi Ms CSCF Mr Mg Gi CSCF Mw Multimedia IP Networks

SCP
Alternative Access Network

Mm

MRF
Gi GGSN Gi MGW Mc GMSC Server T-SGW

MGCF
Mc

T-SGW

PSTN/ Legacy/External

Uu

Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface

WCDMA 3G Evolution to All-IP Network


PSTN/ISDN Wireless Data Server www, email IP IP Firewall Internet/Intranet/ISP

PSTN/ISDN

HLR HSS AuC


3G-MSC PCM SS7 ATM (G)MSC Server

GGSN

CSCF

MGCF

SGW

MGW

IP
SGSN

MGW MRF

GTP+/IP

GGSN

RNC RNC Iub N_B N_B Iur Iub

UTRAN
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3.5G Radio Network Evolution


High Data rate, low latency, packet optimized radio access Support flexible bandwidth upto 20 MHz, new transmission

schemes, advanced multi-antenna technologies, and signaling optimization Instantaneous peak DL 100 Mb/s and UP 50 Mb/S within 20 MHz spectrum Control plane latency of < 100 ms (camped to active) and < 50 ms (dormant to active) > 200 users per cell within 5 MHz spectrum Spectrum flexibility from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz Eliminate dedicated channels; avoid macro diversity in DL Migrate towards OFDM in DL and SC-FDMA in UL Support voice services in the packet domain Adaptive Modulation and Coding using Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) measurements

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3.5G WCDMA Evolved System Architecture


GERAN
Gb Iu

GPRS Core
S7 S3 S4

PCRF
Rx+

UTRAN

HSS
S6 S1

Evolved RAN

MME UPE

S5

Inter AS Anchor

Gi

Evolved Packet Core


S2 S2

Op. IP Serv. (IMS, PSS, etc)

non 3GPP IP Access

WLAN 3GPP IP Access

* Color coding: red indicates new functional element / interface

Source: www.3gpp.org
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Key 3G and 4G Parameters


Attribute Major Characteristic Network Architecture Frequency Band Component Design Bandwidth 3G 4G Predominantly voice- data as Converged data and VoIP add-on Wide area Cell based Hybrid integration of Wireless Lan (WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area 1.6 - 2.5 GHz 2 8 GHz Optimized antenna; multiband adapters 5 20 MHz Smart antennas; SW multiband; wideband radios 100+ MHz

Data Rate
Access Forward Error Correction Switching Mobile top Speed IP

385 Kbps - 2 Mbps


WCDMA/CDMA2000 Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; turbo Circuit/Packet 200 kmph Multiple versions

20 100 Mbps
MC-CDMA or OFDM Concatenated Coding Packet 200 kmph All IP (IPv6.0)

Operational
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~2003

~2010

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Key 4G Mobility Concepts


Mobile IP
VoIP Ability to move around with the same IP address

IP tunnels
Intelligent Internet

Presence Awareness Technology


Knowing who is on line and where

Radio Router
Bringing IP to the base station

Smart Antennas
Unique spatial metric for each transmission

Wireless IP <---> IP Wireless


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4G Networks Advances
Seamless mobility (roaming)
Roam freely from one standard to another Integrate different modes of wireless communications indoor networks (e.g., wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals; radio and TV; satellite communications 100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area) IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and video IP RAN Open unified standards Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Successor to SS7; replacement for TCP Maintain several data streams within a single connection Service Location Protocol (SLP) Automatic resource discovery Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based service and directory agents

The demise of SS7


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4G Networks Advances contd


Diameter
Successor to Radius Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)

Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs) HSS


Unified Subscriber Information

Application developers, Service providers, and content


creators

Expand beyond the circle


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Key Challenges
Spectral Efficiencies
Challenge Shannons fundamental law of data communications (BW, Sig/No) Hardware Frequency Synthesis techniques esp. for Frequency Hop (FH) systems Traffic characteristics management (burstiness, directionality)

Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM)


Baseband process using parallel equal bandwidth subchannels MC-CDMA; OFDM Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Add cyclic extension or guard band to data

Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to Average Ratio (PAVR)

No pain, no gain
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Key Challenges - contd - 1


Signal Processing and optimizations
Handling extremely large number of users Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions

Orthogonality / correlation of large number of codes


Spectrum Pollution Multi path re-enforcement / interference Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference suppression techniques (ISI and MAI)

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Key Challenges - contd - 2


Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication)
N Dimensional vector spaces IFFT, FFT

Advanced DSPs for parsing and processing data

Smart / Intelligent Antennas


Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays

Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz)

Manage Entropy
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Key Challenges - contd - 3


More Efficient and Sensitive Transreceiver Designs
Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable filters, spurious rejection, power consumption Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques Tight closed Loop power control Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios

Error Correction Coding


Perfect Synchronization / phase alignment between Xmitter and Receiver Clock recovery algorithms (e.g., as times-two, zero crossing) Adaptive digitization of speech and multi media signals A/D and D/A transformations
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4G RF/IF Architecture Example

Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
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4G Transreceiver Processing Example

Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
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Key Challenges - contd - 4


All IP Network
Tunneling and Firewalls Fast Handoff control, authentication, realtime location tracking, distributed policy management Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic Trasnscoders, echo cancellations, media conversions Planetary Interoperability

Integration across different topologies


Multi Disciplinary Cooperation
WPAN WLAN

+
WWAN WMAN

IP

There is packet at the end of the tunnel


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Key Challenges - contd - 5


Distribute intelligence to the edges
Very Smart User equipment; away from network Centric architecture Access routers Miniaturization esp User Equipment

Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS)


Encryption Protocols; Security and trust of information

Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness


Dynamic optimization of scarce resources

Advanced Used interactions / presentation


Improved User interfaces

advanced Speech recognition and synthesis


Flexible displays

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Key Challenges - contd - 6


Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs
Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents Web Adaptiveness global database schemes, global error corrective feedback, logic layer protocol, learning algorithms Symbolic manipulation Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse information sources

Standardizations and Regulatory


Modulation techniques, switching schemes, roaming Spectrum Cooperation/coordination among global Spectrum Regulators

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4G Forums
Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe Next-Generation Internet (NGI)
Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH etc.) High Performance networks: vBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA), DREN (DoD), ESnet (DoE),

Internet2
US Universities Initiated Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (gigaPoPs)

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Summary
Mobile Intelligent Internet and multi media applications Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user
bandwidth, customized QoS, Intelligent and responsive user interface Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas Continued advances and challenges from 1G -> 4G Modulation techniques, transreceiver advances, fast manipulations, user interfaces, IP tunelling and firewalls Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, one standard, authentication and security, multi disciplinary co-operation Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical space, esp. User Equipment (UE)

IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G IP in the sky with diamonds
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Back-up

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1st Generation Analog Cellular Systems


Standard Region Frequency (MHz) 824-849 869-894 890-915 935-980 872-915 917-950 453-457.5 463-467.5 890-915 935-960 450-455.74 460-465.74 450-455 460-465 414.8-418 424.8-428 870-885 860-870 915-925 Channel Spacing (kHz) 30 25 25 25 12.5 10 25 12.5 25 25 No. of Modulation Channels 832 1000 1240 180 1999 573 200 250 600 400 FM FM FM FM FM FM FM FM FM FM Data Rate (kbps) 10 8 8 1.2 1.2 5.28 0.3 8.0

AMPS TACS ETACS NMT 450 NMT 900 C-450 RTMS Radiocom 2000 NTT JTACS / NTACS

USA Europe UK Europe Europe Germany Portugal Italy France Japan Japan

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2nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems


System Country Access Technology Frequency Band BS(MHz) MS(MHz) Duplexing RF Channel Spacing (kHz) Modulation IS-54 USA TDMA / FDMA GSM Europe TDMA / FDMA IS-95 USA CDMA / FDMA (DS) CT-2 Europe, Asia FDMA CT-3 DCT-90 Sweden TDMA / FDMA DECT Europe TDMA / FDMA

869-894 824-849 FDD 30

935-960 890-915 FDD

869-894 864-868 862-866 1800-1900 824-849 FDD TDD TDD TDD 200 1250 100 1000 1728

Frequency Assignment Power Control MS Y BS Y Speech VSELP Coding Speech rate (kbps) 7.95 Channel Bit 48.6 Rate (kbps) Channel 1/2 rate Coding convolution

Pi/4 DQPSK Fixed

GMSK Fixed

BPSK / QPSK Fixed

GFSK Dynamic

GFSK Dynamic

GFSK Dynamic

Y Y RPE-LTP

Y Y QCELP 8 (variable 13 rate)

N N ADPCM

N N ADPCM

N N ADPCM

32 72 CRC

32 640 CRC

32 1152

270.833 1228.8 1/2 rate 1/2 rate None convolution forward, 1/3 rate reverse, CRC

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3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards

UMTS-WCDMA "No' Backward Compatibility Cell Sites not synchronized Each cell site with different scrambling code for spreading Complex soft Hand Over Scrambling code 38,400 chips; frame of 10 ms OVSF Codes

CDMA2000 Backward compatibility with CDMAOne Cell sites synchronized thru' GPS timing Adjacent cell sites use diffferent time offset of same scrambling code for spreading Simple Soft Hand Over Preudo Random (PN) sequence of length 215 - 1 chips; period of 26.67 ms; different site offset of 64 chips Walsh Codes

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Cdma2000 Layered Structure


Packet Data Application
Upper Layers (OSI 3-7)

Packet Data Application UDP

Packet Data Application High Speed Circuit Network Layer Services

Signaling Services

TCP

IP PPP

LAC

LAC Protocol

Null LAC

Link Layer (OSI 2)

MAC Control State MAC Multiplexing

Best Effort Delivery RLP

QoS Control

Physical layer (OSI 1)

Physical Layer

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Unique to cdma2000

UMTS Spectrum Allocation


IMT-2000 TDD GSM 1800 DL DECT IMT-2000 UL IMT-2000 TDD MSS UL IMT-2000 DL MSS DL

Europe

PHS

IMT-2000 UL

IMT-2000 DL

Japan
IMT-2000 DL

IS-95 DL

IMT-2000 UL

Korea

PCS/UL

PCS/DL

USA

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

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WCDMA Circuit Switched Protocols

CM MM RRC RRC RLC RANAP MAC Phy-up ALCAP NBAP NBAP ALCAP MAC Q.2630.1 Phy-up Iu UP Q.2150.1 MTP3b SCCP MTP3B

CM MM

CODEC RLC

RANAP Q.2630.1 SCCP MTP3B Q.2150.1 MTP3b Iu UP

FP SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI SSCOP PHY PHY AAL2 AAL5 ATM PHY AAL5 SSCOP

SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI FP SSCOP AAL5 SSCOP AAL5 ATM PHY AAL2 AAL2

SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 ATM PHY SSCOP AAL5

SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 SSCOP AAL5 ATM PHY AAL2

UE

Node B

RNC

Core

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WCDMA PACKET CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOLS

Uu

Iub

Iu-ps

SM GMM RRC RLC MAC-cd PHY-up FP ALCAP NBAP SSSAR SAAL SAAL AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 ATM PHY

PHY CDMA

PHY CDMA

RRC RLC MAC-cd PHY-up NBAP ALCAP FP SAAL SAAL SSSAR AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 ATM PHY

UE/MTE

NODE B

RNC

SGSN

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WCDMA PACKET USER PLANE PROTOCOLS

Uu
IP PDCP RLC MAC PHY-up FP PHY CDMA PHY CDMA AAL2 ALCAP SAAL

Iub

Iu-ps

PDCP RLC MAC PHY-up ALCAP SAAL FP AAL2 ATM PHY

ATM PHY

UE/MTE

NODE B

RNC

SGSN

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HSDPA Protocol Architecture

RLC MAC MAC-c/sh MAChs HSDSCH FP L2 HSDSCH FP L2 HSDSCH FP

RLC MAC-D HSDSCH FP

L2

L2

PHY

PHY

L1

L1

L1

L1

Uu

Iub

Iur

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IMS Architecture

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Standards
IEEE 802.11a and b: Wireless LAN (WiFi) IEEE 802.15: Wireless PAN (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.16d and e: Wireless MAN (WiMAX) IS-41: Inter-systems operation (TIA/EIA-41) IS-54: 1st Gen (US) TDMA; 6 users per 30 KHz channel IS-88: CDMA IS-91: Analog Callular air interface IS-93: Wireless to PSTN Interface IS-95: TIA for CDMA (US) (Cdmaone) IS-124: Call detail and billing record

IS-136: 2nd Genr TDMA (TDMA control channel)


IS-637: CDMA Short Message Service (SMS) IS-756: TIA for Wireless Network Portability (WNP) IS-2000: cdma2000 air interface (follow on to TIA/EIA 95-B)

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Glossary
3GPP:3G Partnership Project AAA:Authentication, Authorization, Accounting AMR:Adaptive Multi Rate (Speech Codec) ANSI:American National Standards Institute ARIB:Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan) BRAN:Broadband Radio Access Network (HYPERLAN 2) 2.5 Mbps CAMEL:Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards group (China) ECMA:European Computer Manufacturers Association EDGE:Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution ETSI:European Telecommunications Standards Institute FDD:Frequency Division Duplex FDMA:Frequency Division Multiple Access GGSN:Gateway GPRS Support Node GMSC:Gateway MSC GPRS:General Packet Radio Service GSM:Global System for Mobile communication GTP:GPRS Tunneling Protocol HIPERLAN:High Performance Radio Local Area Network HLR:Home Location Register HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data HYPERLAN: High Performance Radio Access network IMSI:International Mobile Subscriber Identity
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IMT:International Mobile Telecommunications ITU:International Telecommunications Union OVSF:Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor PDN:Public Data Network PLMN:Public Land Mobile Network PSTN:Public Switched Telephone Network QoS:Quality of Service RAB:Radio Access Bearer RNC:Radio Network Controller RRC:Radio Resource Control SGSN:Servicing GPRS Support Node SIM:Subscriber Identity Module TDD:Time Division Duplex TDMA:Time Division Multiple Access TTA:Telecommunications Technology Association (Korea) TTC:Telecommunications Technology Commission (Japan) UMTS:Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UTRAN:UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VoIP:Voice over Internet Protocol WCDMA:Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network
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References
1. www.3gpp.org 2. WCDMA for UMTS, Ed.: H. Holma and A. Toskala, John Wiley, 2001 3. UMTS - Mobile Communications for the Future, Ed. F.Muratore, John Wiley, 2001 4. WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet, Eds E.Djanpera and R.Prasad, Artech House, 2001 5. IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000, V.K.Garg, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, 2002 6. IP Telephony, O. Hersent, D. Gurle Et, and J-P Petit, Addison-Wesley, 2000 7. www.mobileinfo.com

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