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LEADERSHIP FOR LEARNING Current approaches to educational leadership

Dr Peter Matthews
Education consultant and Visiting Professor, Institute of Education, London

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1. HOW DOES LEADERSHIP DIFFER FROM MANAGEMENT?


View 1. Distinction (Kotter 1990) Management is about producing order and consistency
Minimum operating standards Quality assurance; monitoring, evaluation etc.

Leadership is about generating constructive change


Raising expectations, doing things better

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HOW DOES LEADERSHIP DIFFER FROM MANAGEMENT?


View 2. Hierarchy (Collins 2001)
Level 5: EXECUTIVE Level 5 leaders build greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will. Level 4: EFFECTIVE LEADER Catalyses commitment to and clear pursuit of a clear and compelling vision stimulating higher performance standards. Level 3: COMPETENT MANAGER Organises people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives. Level 2: CONTRIBUTING TEAM MEMBER Contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others. Level 1: HIGHLY CAPABLE INDIVIDUAL Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits.
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THE STATE OF THE NATION


Secondary

Leadership Teaching/learning

15 10 17 48

52 37 34 40

31 9

2 5

Effectiveness
Leadership Teaching/learning Effectiveness

Primary

15 12
13 27 21

52 52
50 54 59

13 34
33 17 18

2 3
4 2 2

Outstanding Good Satisfactory

Inadequate
Special

Leadership Teaching/learning Effectiveness


0%

26
20% 40%

54
60% 80%

18

2
100%

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2. WHAT ARE THE LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTSTANDING HEADTEACHERS? (Matthews 2007)


Clear vision and purpose Imagination; Very high expectations;
Ambitious for students and for the school

Get the best out of people Motivate: Provide opportunity; Promote


professional development; Encouraging initiative; Show interest and are generous with praise; Build teams and empower them; Distribute responsibility and accountability

Lead by example Role models Approachable Open door policy Innovative Encourage, open-minded, trust staff Determined and decisive Highly focused on what matters Focus on quality Monitor and evaluate performance
(150+ interviews in 30 schools with outstanding leadership)
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Get the best out of people Motivate: Provide opportunity; Promote professional development; Encouraging initiative; Show interest and are generous with praise; Build teams and empower them; Distribute responsibility and accountability Note also the leadership credo of Prof. Dr. Hans Hinterhuber Leadership is getting the best out of people, and to do that you have to help them to get the most out of themselves. It means encouraging young people to develop their own potential as far as they can, and perhaps to aim a bit higher than they might achieve.
and Leithwood and Reihl, 2003) Leaders primarily work through and with other people to achieve shared goals. They also help to establish the conditions that enable others to be effective. Thus, leadership effects on school goals are indirect as well as direct.
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The most effective schools have outstanding (Level 5) and well-distributed leadership (Ofsted)
Level 5 Leadership (Collins) Ambitious for their companies not themselves Set up successors to succeed Self-effacing, not ego-driven Fanatically driven, need sustained results Attribute success to others Outstanding leaders (Ofsted) Drive , determination and sense of purpose Grow leaders and distribute leadership Emotional intelligence Strive for the maximum success for every student Believe in people

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3. WHAT MATTERS MOST IN HIGH PERFORMING SCHOOL SYSTEMS?


The quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers The only way to improve outcomes is to improve instruction High performance requires every child to succeed
(McKinsey 2007) The only way to achieve this is through effective and determined school and system leadership.
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So: to procure high quality teachers ...


Schools need autonomy to recruit teachers They advertise for and appoint the best They train their own, where they can, in partnership with higher education They induct, mentor and support new teachers They provide professional development pathways and career opportunities
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To improve instruction, the best schools


Provide a stimulating learning environment Provide rich, well-planned curriculum Have high expectations of teaching and learning Monitor quality of learning and performance of teachers Focus professional development on constantly improving teaching Seek the views of students and parents
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Success for every child? The best schools


Create a culture of expecting success Personalise learning Assess and track the progress of every child, with targets for learning and support or intervention where needed Continuously evaluate the quality and effectiveness of everything the school does Work as a consistent team Learn from others
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4. WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES TEACHING MAKE TO CHILDRENS PROGRESS

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Consistent high quality teaching is by far the most important factor driving the performance of pupils
Student performance

100th percentile
Two students with same performance 50th percentile

Student with highperforming teacher*

90th percentile

Student with lowperforming teacher**

37th percentile

0th percentile Age Age 8 8

Age 11 Age 11
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Sanders and Rivers

5. WHICH LEADERSHIP FUNCTION HAS THE GREATEST IMPACT ON LEARNING?


LEADERSHIP DIMENSION (Robinson,2007)
1. Establishing goals and expectations 2. Strategic resourcing 3. Planning, co-ordinating and evaluating teaching and the curriculum 4. Promoting and participating in teacher learning and development - Leadership that not only promotes but directly participates with teachers in formal or informal professional learning 5. Ensuring an orderly and supportive environment
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EFFECT SIZE Estimate

0.35 0.35 0.42 0.84

0.27

Consistent quality of continuing professional development is by far the most important factor driving the performance of teachers
Student performance 90th percentile? Great teacher

100th percentile
Two teachers with same performance 50th percentile

high quality professional learning

37th percentile? low quality professional learning Ineffective teacher

0th percentile Age Year 08

Age 11 Year +3
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6. HOW DO GOOD SCHOOLS BECOME GREAT? (After Collins)


GREAT RESULTS

BUILD UP GOOD RESULTS

WHATS INSIDE THE BLACK BOX?

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ACHIEVING EXCELLENCE
Having vision, values and high expectations Attracting, recruiting, retaining and developing staff Establishing disciplined learning and consistent staff behaviour INSIDE Assuring the quality of teaching and learning THE Leading, and building BLACK BOX leadership capacity Providing a relevant and attractive curriculum Assessment, progress-tracking and target-setting Twelve outstanding secondary schools: Excelling against the odds Inclusion: students as Ofsted & Matthews, England 2009 individuals
http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/content/download/9129/100820/file/Twelve%20outstanding%20secondary%20schools.pdf petermatthewsassociates@googlemail. com

A JOURNEY IN THREE STAGES

Achieving excellence Sustaining excellence

Sharing excellence
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CHALLENGES: a learning community


Good teachers must be good learners Good school leaders must be good teachers (and lead by example) Good school leaders must be good learners Leaders who are reluctant learners will never inspire others
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7. WHAT ARE CURRENT TRENDS IN SCHOOL LEADERSHIP?


Spectrum of practice in Europe From - Little school autonomy, school leaders elected by other teachers, first among equal To - High degree of autonomy, effective schools leading schools causing concern, executive headteachers, move towards system leadership
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Trends in school leadership

School autonomy

Redefinition of roles and responsibilities of school leaders

Child-centred pedagogical leadership

Leadership of autonomous schools in England

Standards for school leaders

Community leadership

Leading learning

Inter-school partnerships and networking

Workforce reform

Executive principal system leadership


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Extended schools

CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE FIRST


Trends in school leadership
Child-centred pedagogical leadership

Re-professionalising teaching;
sharing good practice, monitoring and evaluation, opening classrooms to other teachers

Personalising learning
relevant and enriched curriculum formative assessment, progress monitoring, target-setting, support and intervention independent learning

Community leadership

Inter-school partnerships and networking Executive principal system leadership

Linking education and care


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Removing barriers to learning

ENGLAND: LEADERSHIP OF AUTONOMOUS SCHOOLS


Schools can appoint their own staff Fully delegated budgets Powers to innovate Responsibility and accountability through performance tables and published inspection reports Leaders set the direction for the school Leaders leadership capacity and develop leadership talent Leaders ensure quality of teaching and learning Educators do not do basic administration Leaders are trained and supported by National College of School and Children Leadership

School autonomy
Leadership of autonomous schools

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NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR HEADTEACHERS


Redefinition of roles and responsibilities of school leaders

Standards for school leaders Leading learning

Moral purpose

Six areas: Shaping the future (strategic vision) Leading learning and teaching Developing self and working with others Managing the organisation Securing accountability Strengthening community
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A TAXONOMY OF LEADERSHIP
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Leaders as managers; administering; assuring compliance; taking responsibility for buildings and day to day organisation Leaders as leaders of people; team leaders; the school community Pedagogical leaders; taking responsibility for pedagogy and shaping the curriculum Accountable leaders; taking responsibility for the educational performance of the school and standards reached by students Community leaders; working with and involving parents, other agencies and the community Distributive and developmental leaders; delegating responsibility and accountability, challenging and supporting, and developing leadership potential Leaders of learning; developing the skills of staff and students and parents as a learning community and networking with other schools to share good practice Executive leaders; taking responsibility for more than one school System leaders; schools leading schools; caring for the education and well-being of students in other schools as well as ones own
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What counts for the student counts for the teacher; all are learners together.

Leadership must give learning vision, direction and momentum All teachers are leaders and all leaders learners

Personalisation means putting the learner at the centre

Teacher development is the priority for leaders

Leadership development requires internal and external provision petermatthewsassociates@googlemail.


com

8. WHERE IS LEADERSHIP GOING?


Prescription Building capacity Professionalism

National prescription
C B A

Schools leading reform

Central leadership Heavy bureaucracy Focus on system compliance Principals as managers

Local and distributed leadership Greater autonomy Focus on personalised learning Principals as leaders of learning
(Adapted from Hopkins)

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