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Basic Mould Design

Stages in Injection Moulding

Stage 1
Granulated or powdered thermoplastic plastic is fed from a hopper into the Injection Moulding machine.

Stage 2
The Injection Moulding machine consists of a hollow steel barrel, containing a rotating screw (Archemidial Screw). The screw carries the plastic along the barrel to the mould. Heaters surround the barrel melt the plastic as it travels along the barrel

Stage 3
The screw is forced back as the melted plastic collects at the end of the barrel. Once enough plastic has collected a hydraulic ram pushes the screw forward injecting the plastic through a sprue into a mould cavity.The mould is warmed before injecting and the plastic is injected quickly to prevent it from hardening before the mould is full.

Stage 4
Pressure is maintained for a short time (dwell time) to prevent the material creeping back during setting (hardening). This prevents shrinkage and hollows, therefore giving a better quality product.The moulding is left to cool before removing (ejected) from the mould. The moulding takes on the shape of the mould cavity.

Injection Moulding Machine

Types of Injection Moulds

Based on injection process
Injection molds may be divided in 7 types, they are 1. Reaction injection molding 2. Liquid injection molding 3. Gas assist injection molding 4. Co-injection molding 5. 2-Shot Injection Molding 6. Fusible core injection molding 7. Rapid injection molding

Based on type of opening method and runner system

1. Standard molds (two-plate molds) 2. Split-cavity molds (split-follower molds) 3. Stripper plate molds 4. Three-plate molds 5. Stack molds

6. Hot runner molds

Depending on material to be injected 1.Termoplastic injection molds 2.Elastomer molds 3.Thermoset molds 4.Structural foam molds Polyethylene Low Density (LDPE, LLDPE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyvinyl chloride (PVC),Polyethylene High Density (HDPE)



Mould in closed condition (three Plate)

Mould in open condition (three Plate)

Un screwing Devices Mould

Split Mould

Hot Runner Mould

Stacked Mould

Gas Injection Moulding

The Factors to be considered for the Design of a Plastic Product are: Properties of the Plastic Material. Proposed function of the Product Method of Manufacture Factors to decide the type of Moulding operation are: Type of Plastic Material Shape and Size of the Product The Moulding Processes are classified as: Operation involves : Physical changes only Chemical changes only Injection Moulding Casting of Monomers Blow Moulding Both Physical and Chemical change Compression or Transfer Moulding

The Quality of the Product depends on ( in Injection Moulding)

Moulding Temperature
Pressure Speed of Injection Method of Cooling Flow behaviour of the Polymer Design of Mould Quality of the Mould

Performance of the Moulding Machine

Product, Product drawing & Production specification

Production Volume (requirement in time) Estimated Moulding Cycle (Cycle time) Is the Drawing clear ? Projection 1st angle, 3rd angle Tolerances Notes on Drawing Draft angle, etc. End use requirement Moulding Material Shrinkage

Injection Mould Parts

1. Fixed Clamping Plate or Top Plate 2. Runner Stripper Plate 3. Cavity plate 4. Core plate 5. Back Plate 6. Spacer Block 7. Ejector retainer plate 8. Ejector Plate 9. Movable Clamping Plate 10.Impression 11.Sprue 12.Runners 13.Gates

Locating Ring

Sprue Bush

Guide Pillar & Guide Bush

Factors to be considered during Design of Injection Moulds for Plastics

Optimum production requirements/time 2. Number of Cavities and Layout of Cavities 3. Selection of Moulding Machine 4. Layout of Cavities 5. Type of Mould 6. Design of Feed system 7. Temperature control (Cooling system) 8. Design of Ejection 9. Venting System 10. Shrinkage of the Plastics Material 11. Mould Material

Number of Cavities in a Mould

a. On the Machine Side: Shot capacity Plasticising capacity Clamping force Injection Pressure Size of the Platens b. On the Component Side: Projected area of the Moulding (Clamping force) Configuration of the Moulding (Injection pressure) Wall thickness of the Moulding (Pressure) Height of the moulding (pressure) Size of the Moulding (Mould size, Platen size & Flow length)

c. On the Material Side:

Injection Pressure Injection Temperature

Mould Temperature
Density of the Material Bulk Factor of the Material

Shot Capacity

Percentage Volume expansion of the Material at the

Moulding Temperature (Crystalline and Amorphous Materials) Total thermal heat content of the Material at the Moulding Temperature Specific heat of the Material Latent heat of fusion of the Material Temperature difference between the Moulding

Plasticizing Capacity

Temperature and Room Temperature.

Layout of Cavities:
For efficient and Economical Layout the following points to be considered during Layout of the Cavities.

Optimum disposition of Cavities Minimum Runner length Balanced Layout

Optimum disposition of Cavities Reduce the Mould size

Reduce the Mould cost. Minimum Runner length

Reduce the pressure drop

Fill all the cavities with required pressure and temperature. Balanced Layout
Attain uniform clamping Prevent local flashing of the mould.


Mould size comparison

Area of Plate Area of Plate A B = = (a2 + 2b ) 2 ( a + 2b ) 2 ( a + 2b ) 2

A> B =

(a2 + 2b ) 2

a2 + 1.656ab

Type of Injection Moulds

Classification of Injection Moulds based on: Main Design features Manner of Operation These includes: Type of Gating and means of De-gating Type of Ejection Presence or Absence of undercuts The manner in which the product is released from the mould. Types of Injection Moulds are: Standard moulds (Two or Three plate moulds) Split cavity moulds Stripper plate moulds Stack moulds and Hot Runner moulds

Design of Feed system

Feed system connects The flow of the material from nozzle to the cavity Feed system contains Sprue alone (Direct sprue gate) or Sprue, runner and gate in multi-impression moulds Feed system is not proper Difficult to get the product with optimum quality



(a)Runner Design
The designer should keep in mind the following points during design of runner. Shape and Cross section of the runner
Size of the runner Layout of the runner

Shape and Cross section:

Various shapes and cross sections are:

Circular Semi- circular Trapezoidal Modified Trapezoidal

Square Rectangular



b) Trapezoidal
c) Modified Trapezoidal

d) Hexagonal

Runner layout

Balanced runner layout

GATE DESIGN Gate is a small channel that connects the cavity with the runner. A small gate is desired so that :
The gate freezes soon after the cavity filled The injection plunger can be withdrawn immediately without forming voids due to suck-back. It is easy for degating Small witness mark remains on the product Better filling of cavities in multi-impression mould. More packing of material due to shrinkage effect is minimised.

Types of gate
Direct sprue gate
Pin point gate Rectangular Edge gate

Fan gate
Diaphragm gate Ring gate Film gate Sub-surface or submarine or Tunnel gate.

Selection of Mold Materials

The requirements to be met while selecting mold material are machinability, ability to harden, ability to take a polish, corrosion resistance, etc. There is a long list of factors to be considered in selecting materials for plastic molds. The primary factors are: Type of polymer to be molded, Method of forming cavities, Mold wear and mold life, Physical or chemical properties, Quantity of parts to be made, Mold fabrication, Cost.

Temperature Control (Cooling System)

Cooling system is necessary :

To solidify the hot plastic material injected inside the cavity

Efficient cooling in necessary:

For efficient production ( Less Cycle time ) For quality moulding To prevent moulded in-stresses, strains, listers, warpage, sink mark, poor surface appearance, varying part dimensions etc. on the finished product.

In-efficient cooling can cause quality

problems in the product such as: Axial and Radial Eccentricity Angular deviation Warpage

Surface defects & Flow lines

O Ring

Flow pattern used on a deep cavity block with the channels running length wise

Cavity block with three level cooling channels

Circular flow at various levels around a deep cavity

Baffle Cooling

Use of Bubbler arrangements in Cooling system

Ejection System
The ejection system in a mould should be:
Positive in action No ejection mark will be seen on the product No defects on the product (i.e distortion, flash, witness mark)

Type of ejection for a particular product will depends on:

The configuration of the product

Types of ejection :
Pin ejection ( Round Pin, D-Pin ) Blade ejection Stripper ejection ( Stripper plate, Stripper Ring ) Sleeve ejection Air ejection ( Valve ejection )

Ejector Guide Pillar & Bush

Sleeve for Ejection

Stripper Plate Ejection

Venting in Injection Moulds

If venting is not provided, the following defects may occur in the moulding: Discoloration Sink mark Incomplete filling At the point where flow paths are likely to meet At the bottom of the projection

Position of the Vent:

At the point of further most from the gate on symmetrical moulding.

0.05 deep x 3 mm wide

Size of the Vent: -



Parting Surface
The parting surfaces are that part of the surface where surface of the core and cavity of a mould are matched perfectly to remove the chance of flash. Parting Line: It is the line which can be seen in the component due to the matching of core and cavity. Types of Parting surface a) Flat Parting Surface b) Non Flat Parting Surface

Flat Parting Surface


Flat or plain Parting Surface

In this case, the surface is totally plain.In this type of

Surface,the parting lines lies in one plane as per the selection of the parting surface


Non Flat Parting Surface

In this case the parting lines lies on curved surface and is not in a plane.

Stepped Parting Surface: This type of parting surface is generally in the shape of a step.

Irregular or Profile Parting Surface: In this type the surface is irregular profile in shape. Angled Parting Surface: The parting surface is selected for easy ejection of the component. Complex Edge Parting Surface: It is a spoon type of component in which there is no constant edge. In this type of surface, the parting line is also not in the same plane.




Mould Alignment
Locating Ring: It is circular member fitted at the top of

the mould to locate the mould with the machine. This part is used for the alignment of mould to machine. Locating ring is used in the injection mould to maintain the mould axes and the axes of machine in one line.

Constant Diameter type: In this type of locating ring, the diameter of ring is constant throughout the depth which is fixed with front face of the mould by using socket headed screw. 2. Reduced Diameter Type: In this type the platen hole diameter is less compared to mould recess diameter. 3. Increased Diameter Type :In this type the platen hole diameter is more when compared to mould recess diameter. 4. Increased Depth type: It is identical to increased depth type expect the depth of the mould fitting diameter which is increased to accommodate insulated metal sheet adjacent too the front plate.